Pathophysiology


Last updated: 2021 Sep 5
Total hit(s): 113
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In a newborn with COVID-19, COVID19 associated coagulopathy (CAG) may have led to the development of pulmonary artery thrombosis.There was an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines-Interleukins (IL)-10 and IL-8.
33956761
(Pediatr Infect Dis J)
PMID
33956761
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun 1
Title Pulmonary Artery Thrombosis in a Newborn With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019
Author(s) nameSchulze-Schiappacasse C, Alarcón-Andrade G et al.
Journal Pediatr Infect Dis J
Impact factor
2.17
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


The study identifies adrenal hemorrhage as one of the possible complications of COVID-19. The physiological stress of severe COVID-19 combined with anti-coagulant therapy most likely led to adrenal hemorrhage. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest on Day 5. An echocardiogramgram (ECG) showed the dilated right ventricle with interventricular septal bulging and severe tricuspid regurgitation.
33815638
(Radiol Case Rep)
PMID
33815638
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun
Title Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in a man with severe COVID-19 pneumonia
Author(s) name Elkhouly MMN, Elazzab AA, Moghul SS.
Journal Radiol Case Rep
Impact factor
0.6
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Gastrointestinal samples from COVID-19 patients who had undergone gastrointestinal procedures were analysed by histopathology and in situ hybridisation (ISH). The findings were either normal with the presence of virus detected by ISH and next-generation sequencing (NGS) or bowel ischemia without the presence of viral particles in the tissue.
33961007
(Arch Pathol Lab Med)
PMID
33961007
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 7
Title Pathophysiology,human,clinical features.
Author(s) nameWesterhoff M, Jones D et al.
Journal Arch Pathol Lab Med
Impact factor
4.27
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Endotracheal aspirate(from lungs and lower airways) from Covid-19 infected patients showed the presence of bacterial co-infections. Acinetobacter baummanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the strains detected. All strains of Acinetobacter were resistant towards antibiotics,except colistin, vancomycin or tetracycline. Sample collection of patients were done in 4 stages after an interval of 3 days. Phenotypical detection of metallo-beta-lactamase(MBL) producing isolates was done by combination disc diffusion test(CDDT) and modified Hodge test(MHT).
32873235
(BMC Infect Dis)
PMID
32873235
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 1
Title Evaluation of bacterial co-infections of the respiratory tract in Covid-19 patients admitted to ICU.
Author(s) nameSharifipour E, Shams S et al.
Journal BMC Infect Dis
Impact factor
2.58
Citation count: 6
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Lungs of Covid-19 patients and patients who died of influenza were compared with uninfected lungs. Alveolar damage with perivascular T cell infiltration was the predominant feature in the infected lungs. Lungs from COVID-19 infected lungs also showed severe endothelial injury with the presence of intracellular virus. A multiplexed analysis showed that a total of 69 angiogenesis-related genes were differentilly regulated only in covid-19 group, when compared to 26 in the influenza group. 45 genes had shared changes in expression.
32437596
(N Engl J Med)
PMID
32437596
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul 9
Title Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis,Thrombosis and Angiogenesis in Covid-19.
Author(s) nameAckermann M, Verleden SE et al.
Journal N Engl J Med
Impact factor
37.91
Citation count: 629
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Blood coagulation data in patients with COVID-19 infection was assessed. Compared to the healthy controls, the anti-thrombin values in COVID-19 patients were lower. The levels of D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and fibrinogen (FIB) was higher in the COVID-19 patients when compared to healthy controls.
32172226
(Clin Chem Lab Med)
PMID
32172226
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 25
Title Prominent changes in blood coagulation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Author(s) nameHan H, Yang L et al.
Journal Clin Chem Lab Med
Impact factor
3.59
Citation count: 270
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Plasma levels of Cathepsin L (CTSL), Cathepsin B (CTSB) were higher, and angiotensin 17 (Ang(17) level was lower in patients of Covid-19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) level was the same in both infected and healthy individuals. Increased CTSL levels are associated with COVID-19.
33774649
(Signal Transduct Target Ther)
PMID
33774649
Date of Publishing: 2021 Mar 27
Title Cathepsin L plays a key role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and humanized mice and is a promising target for new drug development
Author(s) nameZhao MM, Yang WL et al.
Journal Signal Transduct Target Ther
Impact factor
<3years
Citation count: 4
Date of Entry 2021 Aug 23


Cathepsin L (CTSL) and Cathepsin B (CTSB) levels are increased in Huh7 cells with increasing doses of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. ~
33774649
(Signal Transduct Target Ther)
PMID
33774649
Date of Publishing: 2021 Mar 27
Title Cathepsin L plays a key role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and humanized mice and is a promising target for new drug development
Author(s) nameZhao MM, Yang WL et al.
Journal Signal Transduct Target Ther
Impact factor
<3years
Citation count: 4
Date of Entry 2021 Aug 23


Computed Tomography (CT) scan of a patient with covid-19 pneumonia showed both pleural effusion and pericardial effusion with enlargement of the heart. ECG test was reported negative for ischemic alterations. Vesicular murmur was reduced in both the lungs during auscultation done. The sO2 levels were 89%. Laboratory tests for the patient showed leukopenia, thrombopenia and an increased value of C-reactive protein.
33777279
(Radiol Case Rep)
PMID
33777279
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun
Title Pericardial and pleural effusion in an elderly woman with Covid-19 pneumonia.
Author(s) nameMessina F, Turano L et al.
Journal Radiol Case Rep
Impact factor
0.6
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Portable chest radiography[CXR] was performed on Covid-19 patients and the results were assessed to evaluate correlation with disease status and clinical outcomes. Initial CXR scores were found out to be associated with Covid-19 positivity, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. CXR is more convinient than CT and rT-PCR,which has long turnaround time and high false-negative rate.
33706997
(Clin Radiol)
PMID
33706997
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun
Title Initial chest radiograph scores inform Covid-19 status,intensive care unit admission and need for mechanical ventilation.
Author(s) nameShen B, Hoshmand-Kochi M et al.
Journal Clin Radiol
Impact factor
2.15
Citation count: 3
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


The study was done to assess the risk of developing Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in cirrhosis patients after COVID-19 infection. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 related ACLF (S-ACLF) had prolonged hospital stay, severe illness and higher mortality when compared to patients without ACLF.
33398222
(J Clin Exp Hepatol)
PMID
33398222
Date of Publishing: 2021 May-Jun
Title Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2-related Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure.
Author(s) nameKumar P, Sharma M et al.
Journal J Clin Exp Hepatol
Citation count 2
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Autopsies, post-mortem CT scans along with histopathological and virological tests were performed on Covid-19 patients. Pulmonary embolism and Deep vein thrombosis were the major causes of death in most cases. Diffuse alveolar damage was found in 67% (8) patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected at high concentrations in the lungs. High viral titres were detected in the liver, kidney or heart of 5 patients. The most common co-morbid conditions were coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -50% and 25% respectively.
32374815
(Ann Intern Med)
PMID
32374815
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug 18
Title Autopsy findings and venous Thromboembolism in patients with Covid-19.
Author(s) nameWichmann D, Sperhake JP et al.
Journal Ann Intern Med
Impact factor
11.75
Citation count: 421
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


This study shows direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 into kidney tissue. Kidney abnormalities in autopsy patients showed proximal tubule injury with loss of brush border and necrosis. ACE2 protein was upregulated in the kidney and immunostaining showed the presence of SARS-CoV nucleoprotein in the tubules. Eleven patients had a history of hypertension or diabetes or both.
32327202
(Kidney Int)
PMID
32327202
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul
Title Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China
Author(s) nameSu H, Yang M et al.
Journal Kidney Int
Impact factor
7.36
Citation count: 314
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Chest CT scans of Symptomatic COVID-19 patients showed that early patients (0-2 days) had normal CT. As the disease progressed, the CT scans showed consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease,"crazy paving" pattern and the "reverse halo". The CT findings are related to infection time course.
32077789
(Radiology)
PMID
32077789
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Chest CT findings in Covid-19 and its relationship to duration of infection.
Author(s) nameBernheim A, Mei X et al.
Journal Radiology
Impact factor
7.11
Citation count: 501
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Chest CT scans showed that the lung abnormalities showed the highest severity 10 days after onset of symptoms in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest CTs started showing improvements approximately 14 days after the onset of initial symptoms.
32053470
(Radiology)
PMID
32053470
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Time course of Lung changes at chest CT scans during recovery from Covid-19.
Author(s) namePan F, Ye T et al.
Journal Radiology
Impact factor
7.11
Citation count: 457
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Changes in the lungs like decreased lung sliding, pleural thickening and a B-profile were detectable by ultrasonography. Also, over the course of the disease, the pleura becomes thick and irregular, C-profile and pleural effusion becomes more prominent. Lung ultrasound findings in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pneumonia.
33257915
(ERJ Open Res)
PMID
33257915
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct
Title Lung ultrasound findings in patients with novel SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameHaaksma ME, Heldeweg MLA et al.
Journal ERJ Open Res
Impact factor
3.35
Citation count: 2
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to ICU were investigated for bacterial and viral co-infections. A 28% rate of bacterial-co-infection, mostly related to Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Entero- bacteriaceae were reported. Co-infection with other viruses were not detected.
32894364
(Ann Intensive Care)
PMID
32894364
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 7
Title Bacterial and viral co- infections in patients with severe SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia admittedto a French ICU.
Author(s) nameContou D, Claudinon A et al.
Journal Ann Intensive Care
Impact factor
3.85
Citation count: 11
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


Postmortem kidneys of patients who died of Covid-19 was assessed. Histological analysis showed that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) correlated with acute tubular injury. 73% of the 42 patients had a history of hypertension. 69% of patients were exposed to at least one nephrotoxin during hospitalization.
32727719
(J Am Soc Nephrol)
PMID
32727719
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title Postmortem kidney pathology findings with Covid-19.
Author(s) nameSantoriello D, Khairallah P et al.
Journal J Am Soc Nephrol
Impact factor
16.9
Citation count: 16
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) was assessed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. VTE was observed in 25% (20/81) patients of which 8 patients died. A significant increase in the D-dimer levels is a good indicator for VTE. All patients received anti-viral treatment after diagnosis.No preventive anti-coagulant treatment was given.
32271988
(J Thromb Haemost)
PMID
32271988
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia
Author(s) nameCui S, Chen S et al.
Journal J Thromb Haemost
Impact factor
4.45
Citation count: 390
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


Chest CT scans of COVID-19 patients showed that the right lower lung was most affected. Majority of patients showed bilateral lung involvement with peripheral and subpleural lesion distribution. The most common feature was ground-glass opacities with air bronchograms.
32105637
(Lancet Infect Dis)
PMID
32105637
Date of Publishing: 2020 Apr
Title Radiological findings from patients with Covid-19 pnemonia in Wuhan,China.
Author(s) nameShi H, Han X et al.
Journal Lancet Infect Dis
Impact factor
21.77
Citation count: 840
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


Analysis of the viral load from swabs of the nose and throat obtained from symptomatic patients showed higher viral loads in the nose than in the throat,and soon after symptom onset.
32074444
(N Engl J Med)
PMID
32074444
Date of Publishing: 2020 Mar 19
Title SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients
Author(s) nameZou L, Ruan F et al.
Journal N Engl J Med
Impact factor
37.91
Citation count: 1218
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


A patient hospitalised with respiratory symptoms, fever, dizziness and cough was studied. Infection due to the presence of influenza virus, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, were ruled out indicating a new pathogen may be responsible for the infection.
32015508
(Nature)
PMID
32015508
Date of Publishing: 2020 Mar
Title A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China
Author(s) nameWu F, Zhao S et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 1592
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 12


An acute lung injury model by intratracheally instilling the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S protein (400 g/kg, 2 ml/kg body weight) in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice that overexpress the human receptor for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein S, ACE2, and investigated outcomes 72 hours later. A single exposure of K18-hACE2 mice to SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S subunit S1 may represent a valid model of COVID-19, allow the study of the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 induced lung injury and be useful in the investigation of potential new therapeutic approaches to the management of COVID-19 as well as future coronavirus-dependent respiratory diseases.
Direct author entry
(pre-publication)
Title Single intratracheal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein induces acute lung injury in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice
Author(s) namePavel Solopov, Ruben Colunga Biancatelli et al.
Affiliations Pavel Solopov (Old Dominion University)| Ruben Colunga Biancatelli (Old Dominion University)| Elizabeth Sharlow (University of Virginia)| John Lazo (University of Virginia)| John Catravas (Old Dominion University, Old Dominion University)
Date of Entry 2021 Jun 15


Findings from 3-dimensional histological imaging of lung sample from a COVID-19 victim were reported. Pulmonary microangiopathy that involved activated megakaryocyte in the lungs were found to be the major cause of death. 3D imaging is far more superior than 2D imaging as it allows to visualisation of the true extent of cytopathic changes and tissue damage from COVID-19.
Pre-print (bioRXiv)
Date of Publishing -
Title Multiscale 3-dimensional pathology findings of COVID-19 diseased lung using high-resolution cleared tissue microscopy
Author(s) name -
Date of Entry 2021 Jun 14


Lung samples from 12 COVID-19 victims were assessed. The main site of viral replication was the pulmonary alveoli wherein most of the coagulatory events also occurred. Accumulation of CD163+ macrophages and the disappearance of T cells, B cells and NK cells were some of the inflammatory responses.
Pre-print (bioRXiv)
Date of Publishing -
Title Pulmonary stromal expansion and intra-alveolar coagulation are primary causes of Covid-19 death
Author(s) name -
Date of Entry 2021 Jun 14