Mucormycosis, Pathophysiology


Last updated: 2021 Dec 7
Total hit(s): 28
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Original Article
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Sudden surge in mucormycosis cases was observed in COVID-19 pandemic likely due to weakening in host immunity, as well as a synergistic effect in thrombotic microangiopathy (blood clots in small blood vessels). Patientswith uncontrolled diabetes, especially oneswho havehistory of COVID-19 infection and presentmaxillary osteomyelitis, are more likely to develop mucormycosis.
34637017
(Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol)
PMID
34637017
Date of Publishing: 2021 Oct 12
Title Mucormycosis in COVID-19 pandemic and its neurovascular spread
Author(s) namePal P, Singh B et al.
Journal Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
Impact factor
1.84
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


A COVID-19 patient with poorly controlled diabetes undergoing treatment with corticosteroids developed Mucormycosis in the eye. SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological dysregulation, as well as the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, especially in patients withpoorly controlled diabetes andketoacidosis, are all likely factors in the development of mucormycosis.
34363754
(Lancet)
PMID
34363754
Date of Publishing: 2021 Aug 21
Title Mucormycosis after COVID-19 in a patient with diabetes
Author(s) nameChauhan K, Soni D et al.
Journal Lancet
Impact factor
43.38
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


Most patients treated with corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics for COVID-19 developed mucormycosis. The average period from the diagnosis of COVID19 to the onset of mucormycosis was 12.1 +/- 4.6 days. The most common predisposing factors for mucormycosis were poor glycaemic management, moderately severe pneumonia, mechanical ventilation, and failure to receive the COVID19 vaccine.
34255907
(Mycoses)
PMID
34255907
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jul 13
Title Mucormycosis and COVID-19: An epidemic within a pandemic in India
Author(s) nameSelarka L, Sharma S et al.
Journal Mycoses
Impact factor
3.05
Citation count: 7
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


In a group of 70 COVID-19 Associated mucormycosis (CAM) patients, majority of them (68.6%) developed mucormycosis of the eye and nasal passages. The increase in incidence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients is believed to be caused by a combination of high-dose steroids and uncontrolled diabetes.
34254132
(QJM)
PMID
34254132
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jul 12
Title COVID-19-associated mucormycosis presenting to the Emergency Departmentan observational study of 70 patients
Author(s) nameRamaswami A, Sahu AK et al.
Journal QJM
Impact factor
1.35
Citation count: 3
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


A post-COVID diabetic woman on steroids developed invasive gastrointestinal mucormycosis resulting in acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) and bowel gangrene.
34177157
(Indian J Surg)
PMID
34177157
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun 22
Title Post-COVID-19 Gastrointestinal Invasive Mucormycosis
Author(s) nameJain M, Tyagi R et al.
Journal Indian J Surg
Impact factor
0.6
Citation count: 2
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


A 42-years old diabetic patient who recovered from acute Covid-19 infection developed mucormycosis of the nose and palate one week later. Diabetes mellitus and an immunocompromised state due to COVID-19 infection led to the development of mucormycosis in the patient.
34128074
(QJM)
PMID
34128074
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun 14
Title Mucormycosis- A Dreaded Complication Of Covid-19
Author(s) nameSelarka L, Sharma AK et al.
Journal QJM
Impact factor
1.35
Citation count: 2
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


A patient with no history of diabetes or other underlying conditions developed mucormycosis of the eye soon after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 patients should be researched on for better prevention and management of opportunistic infections in order to reduce their occurrence and morbidity. Prophylactic treatment regimens, as well as the reasonable use of corticosteroids, must be devised.
33964720
(Int J Surg Case Rep)
PMID
33964720
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 4
Title Sino-orbital mucormycosis in a COVID-19 patient: A case report
Author(s) nameMaini A, Tomar G et al.
Journal Int J Surg Case Rep
Impact factor
0.57
Citation count: 21
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


5 patients with a history of diabetes and confirmed COVID-19 were diagnosed with mucormycosis of the eye and nasal passages during their course of treatment. All patients were treated with intravenous steroids for COVID-19.
34052046
(Indian J Med Microbiol)
PMID
34052046
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 26
Title Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in COVID-19 patient with diabetes a deadly trio: Case series from the north-western part of India
Author(s) nameNehara HR, Puri I et al.
Journal Indian J Med Microbiol
Impact factor
0.94
Citation count: 11
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


A case of mucormycosis of the eye was presented ina 33-year-old female with impaired mental status, bulging eyes and COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 infection and untreated diabetes might have contributed to development of mucormycosis in the patient. The patient passed away on the 26th day of her hospitalisation.
32972795
(Am J Emerg Med)
PMID
32972795
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 16
Title Mucormycosis with orbital compartment syndrome in a patient with COVID-19
Author(s) name Werthman-Ehrenreich A.
Journal Am J Emerg Med
Impact factor
1.68
Citation count: 75
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


In a group of patients with diabetes and usage of systemic corticosteroids developed mucormycosis of the eye, nasal passages and sinuses. To avoid mucormycosis, judicious administration of steroids and strict glycemic control are essential. Using clean masks, preferring N95 masks if available, and limiting swab testing following a COVID-19 diagnosis may help to lower the risk of CAM.
Pre-print (medRXiv)
Title Novel risk factors for Coronavirus disease-associated mucormycosis (CAM): a case control study during the outbreak in India
Impact factor
N/A
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


In 17 patients with COVID associated mucormycosis(CAM), the location of mucormycosis was mainly the lungs (53%), digestive system (18%) and eye (18%). Twelve week Covid associated mucormycosis (CAM) mortality rate in France (88%) was observed to be higher than the mortality rate in India (40-50%) which could be due to poorer prognosis.
Pre-print (medRXiv)
Title High mortality of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) in France: a nationwide retrospective study
Impact factor
N/A
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 7


Mucormycosis may occur in post-COVID 19 patients due to immune dysregulation caused by COVID 19 infection, as well as extensive use of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics involved in its treatment. Headache and facial pain were found to be most commonly reported symptom of mucormycosis. Prognosis can be improved by early detection and effective therapy. Infections with COVID 19 may be associated with a variety of bacterial and fungal co-infections. Rhino orbital mucormycosis is more common in post-COVID-19 patients, particularly those with pre-existing comorbidities.
34414101
(Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg)
PMID
34414101
Date of Publishing: 2021 Aug 15
Title Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Management of Rhino Orbital Mucormycosis in Post COVID 19 Patients
Author(s) nameDesai EJ, Pandya A et al.
Journal Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Impact factor
n/a
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM) patient, presented as rhino-orbital mucormycosis showed improved conditions on treatment with antifungals and immediate surgery (face debridement, orbital exenteration) Fungal and bacterial coinfections can be linked to COVID-19 due to immune system dysregulation or widespread use of immunomodulators/ immunosuppressors
34326123
(BMJ Case Rep)
PMID
34326123
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jul 29
Title Mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19 with uncontrolled diabetes
Author(s) name Shakir M, Maan MHA, Waheed S.
Journal BMJ Case Rep
Impact factor
0.44
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


After 22 days of dexamethasone treatment, a 56-year-old man who had recently been diagnosed with COVID-19 developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Mucormycosis with gangrenous necrosis and secondary osteonecrosis were discovered on the final pathological examination. Mucormycosis primarily affects immunocompromised persons. In the COVID-19 pandemic, the overuse of steroids and the presence of other risk factors, such as diabetes, has resulted in a rise in the prevalence of this deadly mycosis, resulting in its severe presentations and consequences. Despite an increase in fatality reports, there have been no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis reported in the literature previously.
34451951
(Vaccines (Basel))
PMID
34451951
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jul 27
Title COVID-19 Associated Rhino-Orbital Mucormycosis Complicated by Gangrenous and Bone NecrosisA Case Report from Honduras
Author(s) namePalou EY, Ramos MA et al.
Journal Vaccines (Basel)
Impact factor
2.7
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


There has been an exponential growth in the prevalence of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in India with the ascending second wave of COVID-19. The majority of cases exhibited ROCM symptoms between days 10 and 15 after receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis, with 56 percent developing within 14 days and 44 percent taking more than 14 days. The most major predisposing factors in the development of COVID-19-associated ROCM are corticosteroids and Diabetes Mellitus. Mucormycosis has become more prevalent in the current COVID-19 wave.
34156034
(Indian J Ophthalmol)
PMID
34156034
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jul
Title Epidemiology, clinical profile, management, and outcome of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in 2826 patients in India Collaborative OPAI-IJO Study on Mucormycosis in COVID-19 (COSMIC), Report 1
Author(s) nameSen M, Honavar SG et al.
Journal Indian J Ophthalmol
Impact factor
0.93
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


COVID-19 patients with underlying conditions such as uncontrolled type II diabetes are at an increased risk of developing mucormycosis in the sinus and brain. Covid associated mucormycosis (CAM) should be treated with a multidisciplinary which includes prompt diagnosis and treatment with antifungals, appropriate surgical consultation and treatment and also the reversal of the underlying condition.
33984095
(J Med Cases)
PMID
33984095
Date of Publishing: 2021 Mar
Title Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis and COVID-19 Pneumonia
Author(s) name Alekseyev K, Didenko L, Chaudhry B.
Journal J Med Cases
Impact factor
N/A
Citation count: 4
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


The rate of cases presenting with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) to a tertiary care centre increased during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of cases identified during this interval was substantially higher than those described in the literature in other locations in the pre-pandemic era . The number of cases identified during the chosen timeframe is significantly larger than the numbers recorded in the literature in diverse contexts in the pre-pandemic era during similar intervals (range, one to two instances). Impaired host defences against the fungus due to viral-induced lymphopenia or the therapeutic use of corticosteroids and/or hydroxychloroquine, both of which are likely to impair phagocytic immune-cell response (which is the main defence mechanism against mucormycosis)could be possible forinvolvement ofCOVID-19 in the development of ROCM.
34124087
(Front Med (Lausanne))
PMID
34124087
Date of Publishing: 2021
Title Spike in Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis Cases Presenting to a Tertiary Care Center During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Author(s) nameFouad YA, Abdelaziz TT et al.
Journal Front Med (Lausanne)
Impact factor
3
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


Development of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may compromise the immune system increasing the risk of opportunistic infections such as mucormycosis
33331988
(Infection)
PMID
33331988
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 17
Title A challenging complication following SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case of pulmonary mucormycosis
Author(s) namePasero D, Sanna S et al.
Journal Infection
Impact factor
2.84
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital involvement was reported in a COVID-19 patient. Uncontrolled diabetes may have increased the patients chances of fungal co-infection. Dexamethasone use in the pateint lead to hyperglycemia which was not manageable.
33229953
(Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg)
PMID
33229953
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital Mucormycosis in a Patient With COVID-19-Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Author(s) nameMekonnen ZK, Ashraf DC et al.
Journal Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg
Impact factor
0.86
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


A COVID-19 patient with a history of diabetes developed mucormycosis with tuberculosis in the lungs and later nasal mucromycosis. The patients was not using any steroids or other immunomodulatory drugs.
34513586
()
PMID
34513586
Title Massive hemoptysis causing mortality in a post COVID-19 infected Asian male patient: Presenting as pulmonary mucormycosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and later sino-nasal mucormycosis
Impact factor
N/A
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


A case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis with ketoacidosis due to newly diagnosed diabetes and infection with the SARS COV-2 was reported.. COVID-19 can potentially cause diabetic ketoacidosis, which could lead to an invasive fungal infection or another high-risk condition. The presence of several coinfections in this group of patients makes framing therapeutic decisions harder.
33575155
()
PMID
33575155
Title A Case of Fatal Rhino-Orbital Mucormycosis Associated With New Onset Diabetic Ketoacidosis and COVID-19
Impact factor
N/A
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


In a young person presented with an acute anterior cerebral artery (ACA) region infarct and severe COVID-19 pneumonitis, postmortem revealed a case of scattered mucormycosis. Hypothyroidism, steatohepatitis, thrombo-embolic disease, and a higher BMI all contributed to multi-organ failure as a result of disseminated mucormycosis due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
34075329
()
PMID
34075329
Title Autoptic identification of disseminated mucormycosis in a young male presenting with cerebrovascular event, multi-organ dysfunction and COVID-19 infection
Impact factor
N/A
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 30


Out of the 127 COVID-19 associated mucomycosis patients at an ophthalmic centre, 13 patients with no history of diabetes developed uncontrolled diabetes followed by rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Use of steroids for treatment of COVID-19 was the major cause of new onset of diabetes. COVID-19 treatment in younger patients should be carefully monitered.
34338124
(Orbit)
PMID
34338124
Date of Publishing: 2021 Aug 1
Title Rhino-orbital mucormycosis following COVID-19 in previously non-diabetic, immunocompetent patients
Author(s) nameNair AG, Adulkar NG et al.
Journal Orbit
Impact factor
N/A
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 28


Poor control of diabetes in COVID-19 patients is an important risk factor for COVID assoaciated mucormycosis. Covid-19 infected patients with a history of diabetes and hypertension treated with corticosteroids developed Rhino-orbital mucormycosis. No death as a result of known COVID-19 issues were reported.
34096653
(Mycoses)
PMID
34096653
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun 7
Title Mucormycosis in patients with Covid-19:A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study from Iran.
Author(s) namePakdel F, Ahmadikia K et al.
Journal Mycoses
Impact factor
3.05
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 28


In a patient with diabetes and hypertension undergoing COVID-19 treatment, a combination of pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis was reported. In critically ill patients, pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis can be a seondary complication of COVID-19 in severely ill patients.
33842203
(Med Mycol Case Rep)
PMID
33842203
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun
Title Pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19
Author(s) nameJohnson AK, Ghazarian Z et al.
Journal Med Mycol Case Rep
Impact factor
0.702
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 28