Serology


Last updated: 2021 Dec 15
Total hit(s): 65
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In a cohort of lactating parents, COVID-19 infection vs. mRNA immunisation resulted in different patterns of IgA and IgG antibodies in human milk. Infection was linked to a highly variable IgA-dominant response, while vaccination was linked to an IgG-dominant response. Human milk that exhibited neutralising activity against live SARS-CoV-2 virus was linked to both. Human milk-Three patterns of antibody responses were identified: group A, initial IgA and IgG response with an upward trending levels up to 90 days (16 individuals [35.6%]); group B, initial IgA and IgG response with level trend up to 90 days (17 individuals [37.8%]); and group C, poor IgA and no IgG antibody response (5 individuals [11.1%]). A fourth group (group D; 7 [15.6%]) lacked long-term follow-up samples, and thus temporal patterns were not established.
34757387
(JAMA Pediatr)
PMID
34757387
Date of Publishing: 2021 Nov 10
Title Association of Human Milk Antibody Induction, Persistence, and Neutralizing Capacity With SARS-CoV-2 Infection vs mRNA Vaccination
Author(s) nameYoung BE, Seppo AE et al.
Journal JAMA Pediatr
Impact factor
9.89
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


This study depicts distinct antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adults. Anti-Spike (S) IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies, as well as anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibody were observed in adult COVID-19 patients, while children with and without multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) exhibited reduced breadth of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Children independent of whether they develop MIS-C, exhibit distinct infection course and immune response, with indications for developing age-targeted strategies for testing and safeguarding the population. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response generated in children is mainly anti-S IgG antibodies independent of clinical syndrome, whereas adults generate broader antibody responses to infection and exhibit high magnitude and breadth of the anti-S antibody response with more severe disease. The results exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in the anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response across the spectrum of infection in children compared to adults.
33154590
(Nat Immunol)
PMID
33154590
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan
Title Distinct antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults across the COVID-19 clinical spectrum
Author(s) nameWeisberg SP, Connors TJ et al.
Journal Nat Immunol
Impact factor
18.5
Citation count: 130
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were easily detectable in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels reaching 1630 days post-infection. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly degraded in both biofluids, whereas IgG antibodies were relatively stable up to 105 days post-symptom onset (PSO). The anti-spike and anti-RBD IgG and IgM levels in the serum samples positively correlated to the levels in saliva. Saliva may be a good option for antibody testing, at least for anti-spike IgM and anti-RBD IgG readings.
33033173
(Sci Immunol)
PMID
33033173
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 8
Title Persistence of serum and saliva antibody resonses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID -19 patients
Author(s) nameIsho B, Abe KT et al.
Journal Sci Immunol
Impact factor
8.16
Citation count: 242
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


In a group of convalscent patients, there was a positive correlation between serum neutralizing capacity and disease severity. Sera from patients with severe disease showed the highest neutralising capacity. The neutralising antibody (NAb) subtype compositions differed between recovered patients with severe symptoms and recovered patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms. These findings supported the use of RBD as the sole S1-immunogen in vaccine development.
32879307
(Signal Transduct Target Ther)
PMID
32879307
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 2
Title Disease severity dictates SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19
Author(s) nameChen X, Pan Z et al.
Journal Signal Transduct Target Ther
Impact factor
N/A
Citation count: 101
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


Day-28 mortality and SARS-CoV-2 viral loads acquired from nasopharyngeal swabs on ICU admission, as well as accompanying SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers were examined. Limitations observed in this study was with respect to its monocenter design as well as to the small number of patients included.
32572527
(Intensive Care Med)
PMID
32572527
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title SARS-CoV-2 viral loads and serum IgA/IgG immune responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameFourati S, Hue S et al.
Journal Intensive Care Med
Impact factor
8.61
Citation count: 17
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


SARS-CoV-2\-IgG response was assessed in SARS-CoV-2-PCR-confirmed outpatients and asymptomatic PCR-positive contact persons. Outpatients, even asymptomatic people, have a lower serological reaction to SARS-CoV-2 than hospitalised patients. The SARS-CoV-2\-IgG ratio was strongly negatively linked with ct values, implying a reduced viral load as a possible explanation for the lower rate of seropositivity. There are certain limitations in this study, which includes: single patient took PCR test in another laboratory, no productive acquired collection of serum samples, time point of swab sampling in asymptomatic persons and outpatients were in median relative but differences of all these parameters was observed in individuals which couldn't be excluded.
32707511
(J Clin Virol)
PMID
32707511
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title SARS-CoV-2-IgG response is different in COVID-19 outpatients and asymptomatic contact persons
Author(s) nameWellinghausen N, Plonné D et al.
Journal J Clin Virol
Impact factor
2.95
Citation count: 27
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


RBD-specific IgG antibody responses with neutralising activity are detectable 6 days after PCR confirmation. The amount of RBD-specific IgG binding titers was found to be strongly linked with viral neutralisation. FRNT assay is a relaiable technique to determine antibody neutralizing capacity.
32511565
(medRxiv)
PMID
32511565
Date of Publishing: 2020 May 8
Title Rapid generation of neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameSuthar MS, Zimmerman M et al.
Journal medRxiv
Impact factor
Cant find
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


In a HIV-positive SARS-CoV-2 patient, IgA, IgG and IgM antibody reposes were detectable by day 53, however, only IgG responses were detectable up to day 116. The link between an altered immune system and viable SARS-CoV-2 in the gastro-intestinal tract is unclear, despite the fact that this patient had well-controlled HIV.
33966675
(Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol)
PMID
33966675
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 10
Title Temporal differences in culturable severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in a patient with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Author(s) nameAudsley JM, Holmes NE et al.
Journal Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Impact factor
2.66
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 31


Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were detectable 14 days after disease onset. However, a greater than 2-fold decrease in antibody levels was observed in majority (38/42) patients within 14 days. Neutralising antibodies were not analysed in this study.
32603501
(J Med Virol)
PMID
32603501
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 30
Title Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameLiu A, Li Y et al.
Journal J Med Virol
Impact factor
2.07
Citation count: 33
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 31


Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children at 2 different time points was assessed. The antibody levels were significantly lower in the first time point (13th to 29th May 2020) compared to the second time point (24th October to 23rd November 2020). Neutralisation assay showed that the low titre values in asymptomatic children were not protective in the first time point. In the first time point,all seropositive children were asymptomatic (titre <8) at the time of anti-SARS-CoV-2 testing. In the second time point, 7/26 children were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. 69.2% children in the second time point with titre >8 were asymptomatic.
33927556
(Biochem Med (Zagreb))
PMID
33927556
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun 15
Title Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children in Children's Hospital Zagreb during the initial and second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Croatia
Author(s) nameLenicek Krleza J, Zrinski Topic R et al.
Journal Biochem Med (Zagreb)
Impact factor
2.26
Citation count: 4
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


In COVID-19 patients, the patterns of IgG and IgM antibody response were studied. The IgM antibody response began and peaked earlier than the IgG antibody response. The IgM antibody response decreased three weeks after the illness, but the IgG antibody response remained constant. COVID-19 patients with severe illness had a more vigorous IgM and IgG antibody response.
32515684
(Emerg Microbes Infect)
PMID
32515684
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title Patterns of IgG and IgM antibody response in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameLiu X, Wang J et al.
Journal Emerg Microbes Infect
Impact factor
5.84
Citation count: 82
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Sequential serum samples collected from SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals showed a seroconversion of >95%. Neutralising antibodies response is typical of a viral infection with a decline in antibody titres after a peak. A higher viral load may lead to more severe disease and generate a stronger antibody response through increased levels of viral antigen. Vaccine Boosters may be required to provide long-lasting protection and also from reinfection.
33106674
(Nat Microbiol)
PMID
33106674
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title Longitudinal observation and decline of neutralizing antibody responses in the three months following SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans
Author(s) nameSeow J, Graham C et al.
Journal Nat Microbiol
Impact factor
27.9
Citation count: 421
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM antibodies were detected using colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA). The assay was positive for 82.2% (37/45) of RT-PCR positive cases and 32% (8/25) of RT-PCR negative. The GICA can be a useful test to compliment the existing PCR-based assay for confirmation of COVID-19.
32476607
(Emerg Microbes Infect)
PMID
32476607
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title Delayed specific IgM antibody responses observed among COVID-19 patients with severe progrssion
Author(s) nameShen L, Wang C et al.
Journal Emerg Microbes Infect
Impact factor
5.84
Citation count: 34
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibody response (against nucleoprotein) was significantly lower in the mildly ill patients when compared to severely ill patients. IgG responses (against nucleoprotein) were detected 9 days after disease onset in both mild and severely ill patients. Neutralising antibody response was detectable 10 days after onset in both sets of patients. In patients with MERS, antibodies that cross-react with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were detected. Detectin of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG in the urine and sputum could be used as a potential marker to detemine disease severity. No antibodies were detectable in the fecal samples. Monitoring S and N antibody levels could be used to determine neutralisng titers before convalescent plasma transfusion.
32634129
(J Clin Invest)
PMID
32634129
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 1
Title Kinetics of viral load and antibody response in relation to COVID-19 severity
Author(s) nameWang Y, Zhang L et al.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor
10.51
Citation count: 219
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) was used to measure the IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NCP) and a lab-developed proteome array was used to detect IgM against NCP. There was no significant difference in the IgG antibody levels between the patients with mild/moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection and those with severe disease. Although the IgG assay had 100% specificity, antibody levels cannot be used to predict disease severity.
32666092
(Am J Clin Pathol)
PMID
32666092
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 8
Title SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses Do Not Predict COVID-19 Disease Severity
Author(s) namePhipps WS, SoRelle JA et al.
Journal Am J Clin Pathol
Impact factor
2.03
Citation count: 31
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


An estimation of the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of health care workers in a hospital in Spain was assesed . At the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic, very low seroprevalence of 9.3% was reported.
32641730
(Nat Commun)
PMID
32641730
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul 8
Title Seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among health care workers in a large Spanish reference hospital
Author(s) nameGarcia-Basteiro AL, Moncunill G et al.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor
11.8
Citation count: 162
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


The SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralising antibodies were assessed in COVID-19 patients with mild disease. The neutralising antibody titers correlated with the spike binding antibodies that target the S1, receptor binding domain (RBD) and S2. A positive correlation was observed between the neutralising antibody titers and plasma CRP levels(r=0.5) and a negative correlation with the lymphocyte counts (r=-0.44).
32346091
(Nat Rev Immunol)
PMID
32346091
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Neutralizing antibody response in mild COVID-19
Author(s) name van der Heide V.
Journal Nat Rev Immunol
Impact factor
41.65
Citation count: 15
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Antibody levels against the anti-SARS-COV-2 nucleoprotein and Receptor binding domain (RBD) were assessed in COVID-19 patients. The anti-nucleoprotein and RBD IgG antibody levels correlated with neutralising antibody titers. The viral load in the saliva of patients was highest during the first week of infection. The median viral load in the oropharangeal saliva was 52 log10 copies per mL. Viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset in one patient. Older age correlated with higher viral load.
32213337
(Lancet Infect Dis)
PMID
32213337
Date of Publishing: 2020 May
Title Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study
Author(s) nameTo KK, Tsang OT et al.
Journal Lancet Infect Dis
Impact factor
21.77
Citation count: 1417
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Eight months post-symptom onset, the anti-Spike and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgM+ anitbodies in plasma decreases rapidly, whereas the IgG+ anitbodies decrease is less rapidly.The neutralising activity also drops rapidly. Simultaneously, the number of RBD-specific IgM+ B cells declines, while the number of RBD-specific IgG+ B cells remains stable. Long-term vaccination effectiveness is enhanced by the persistence of RBD-specific memory B cells up to 8 months following natural infection.
33969322
(Cell Rep Med)
PMID
33969322
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 5
Title Longitudinal analysis of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in convalescent individuals up to 8 months post-symptom onset
Author(s) nameAnand SP, Prévost J et al.
Journal Cell Rep Med
Impact factor
Cant find
Citation count: 38
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


The neutralizing antibody (NAb) response in SARS-CoV-2 patients was assessed using micronucleation test(MNT) and plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) assays. MNT and PRNT results were very specific, with no cross-reactivity. 64 (71.9%) of the 89 confirmed COVID-19 patients showed NAb response. Healthy individuals (n = 179) and patients infected with respiratory diseases other than SARS-CoV-2 (n = 17) showed no neutralizing antibody (Nab) response in the tests. The neutralisation assays can be used to titrate NAb in COVID-19 patients who have been recovered/vaccinated or who have been infected.
32859866
(Indian J Med Res)
PMID
32859866
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul & Aug
Title Neutralising antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameDeshpande GR, Sapkal GN et al.
Journal Indian J Med Res
Impact factor
1.3
Citation count: 17
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


In the majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, antibody responses to both S protein and receptor binding domain (RBD) are developed. In addition, cross-reactive antigen binding with SARS-CoV has been found in plasma samples from patients and SARS-CoV-2 infected mice. The RBD and non-RBD areas are both targeted by these cross-reactive antibody reactions. Although binding cross-reactivity between plasma from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-infected patients is widespread, cross-neutralization activity may be uncommon.
32426212
(Cell Rep)
PMID
32426212
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 2
Title Cross-reactive Antibody Response between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Infections
Author(s) nameLv H, Wu NC et al.
Journal Cell Rep
Impact factor
7.7
Citation count: 189
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


The antibody dynamics in COVID-19 patients were assessed. The seroconversion rates for Ab, IgM and IgG was found to be 98.8%, 93.8% and 93.8% respectively. The median seroconversion time post-symptom onset was 9,10 or 12 days for Ab, IgM and IgG respectively. The seroconversion time post-exposure was 15, 18 and 20 days for Ab, IgM and IgG respectively. Limitation of this study includes: (1) only symptomatic infections were enrolled, (2) most blood samples were collected at 1 month post-onset, so the duration of antibodies cannot be estimated, (3) the antibody levels were not exactly titrated, and different antigens were used in total antibody (RBD), IgM (RBD) and IgG (Nucleoprotein), (4) no blood sample was collected during the incubation period. Three different antibody tests-ELISA, CMIA and LFIA were used. No significant difference was observed between the ELISA and other forms of immunoassays.
32430429
(Eur Respir J)
PMID
32430429
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title Serology characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection since exposure and post symptom onset
Author(s) nameLou B, Li TD et al.
Journal Eur Respir J
Impact factor
7.8
Citation count: 195
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


In the acute phase of the disease, the virus-specific IgG levels were significantly lower in the asymptomatic individuals when compared to symptomatic individuals. In the early convalescent phase, 40% of the asymptomatic and 12.9% of the symptomatic group became seronegative respectively. The pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were lower in the asymptomatic group when compared to the symptomatic group.
32555424
(Nat Med)
PMID
32555424
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections
Author(s) nameLong QX, Tang XJ et al.
Journal Nat Med
Impact factor
22.66
Citation count: 1176
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


Receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies are detected in all hospitalised COVID-19 patients 6 days after PCR confirmation. Class switching is dominated by RBD-specific IgG1 and IgG3 responses. The IgG antibody titres positively correlated with neutralising antibody responses. The RBD-specific IgG ELISA assay is highly sensitive and specific and can be used as a surrogate of neutralisation activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32835303
(Cell Rep Med)
PMID
32835303
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 23
Title Rapid Generation of Neutralizing Antibody Responses in COVID-19 Patients
Author(s) nameSuthar MS, Zimmerman MG et al.
Journal Cell Rep Med
Impact factor
Cant find
Citation count: 181
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


A serosurvey in a Los Angeles county showed the prevalence of antibodies (either IgG or IgM) was 4.65% (unweighted prevalance was 4.34%). 13% reported fever with cough, 9% reported fever with shortness of breath and 6% reported loss of smell or taste.
32421144
(JAMA)
PMID
32421144
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 16
Title Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2- Spedefic Antibodies Among Adults in Los Angeles County, California, on April 10-11,2020
Author(s) nameSood N, Simon P et al.
Journal JAMA
Impact factor
14.78
Citation count: 193
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24