Immune response


Last updated: 2021 Sep 4
Total hit(s): 33
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T cell response was reduced in a group of convalescent health care workers, with early depletion of antibodies occurring in 27% of patients 1.8 months after infection. T-cell responses were lost in 36% of the cases after 5.1 months, and antibody responses were declining in 77% of the cases (41 percent seroreverted).
33961690
(J Infect Dis)
PMID
33961690
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 7
Title Progressive and Parallel Decline of Humoral and T-Cell Immunity in Convalescent Healthcare Workers with Asymptomatic or Mild-to-Moderate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection
Author(s) nameCasado JL, Vizcarra P et al.
Journal J Infect Dis
Impact factor
4.73
Citation count: 1
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Using high dimensional cytometry, 125 COVID-19 patients were analysed. Analysis showed that a subgroup of patients had activation of T cell and B cell subsets and other subgroup had activation of lymphocytes. 3 immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcomes were identified which may have significance for design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.
32669297
(Science)
PMID
32669297
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 4
Title Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications
Author(s) nameMathew D, Giles JR et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 95
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Deep immunophenotyping of Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed a decrease in the number of circulating T, B and NK cells. There was decrease in the cytokine production by CD4+ T, CD8+T and NK cells. In patients with severe COVID-19 infection (ICU patients), in addition to decreased cytotoxic potential, the Interleukin (IL)-6 levels were elevated. Targeting IL-6 may help in restoring antiviral activity. 5 ICU patients with elevated IL-6 levels were treated with toclizumab. Toclizumab treatment led to a reduction of CRP levels indicating neutralisation of IL-6 activity. It also led to increase in the expression of granzyme A and perforin on NK cells.
32463803
(J Clin Invest)
PMID
32463803
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 1
Title Impaired immune cell cytotoxicity in severe COVID-19 is IL-6 dependent
Author(s) nameMazzoni A, Salvati L et al.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor
10.51
Citation count: 44
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


The Natural killer (NK) cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was assessed. No significant change in NK cell percentages was observed between the healthy controls and COVID-19 patients. However, there was a significant change in the NK cell activation phenotype in COVID-19 patients.
32826343
(Sci Immunol)
PMID
32826343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug 21
Title Natural killer cell immunotypes related to COVID-19 disease severity
Author(s) nameMaucourant C, Filipovic I et al.
Journal Sci Immunol
Impact factor
8.16
Citation count: 20
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


The SARS-CoV-2 immune memory kinetics was assessed more than 6 months after infection. Spike protein-specific memory B cells were higher in number at 6 months than one month after infection. The CD4+ and CD8+ T cells decreased with a half-life of 3-5 months. "1.) Circulating antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 over time: Figure 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F1/), 2.) Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell responses: Figure 2(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F2/), 3.) SARS-CoV-2 circulating memory CD8+ T cells: Figure 3 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F3/), 4.) SARS-CoV-2 circulating memory CD4+ T cells: Figure 4 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F4/)"
33408181
(Science)
PMID
33408181
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan 6
Title Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection
Author(s) nameDan JM, Mateus J et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 9
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


COVID-19 patients had a significant decrease in T-lymphocyte subsets and an increase in inflammatory cytokines. There was a positive correlation between the severity of illness and in-hospital death to the decrease in T-lymphocytes. The decreased level of T lymphocyte subsets may be a possible bio marker for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 as this is usually associated with illness like SARS but not other viral infections.
32315725
(J Infect)
PMID
32315725
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul
Title Suppressed T cell-mediated immunity in patients with COVID-19: A clinical retrospective study in Wuhan, China
Author(s) nameXu B, Fan CY et al.
Journal J Infect
Impact factor
5.1
Citation count: 60
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ and CD4++ T cells were detected in 70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent cases, respectively. In addition to the M, spike and N protein, CD4++ T cell responses were also seen against ORF3a, ORF8, nsp3, and nsp4 proteins. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG and IgA levels correlated with CD4++ T cell responses to spike protein. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4++ T cells were also detected in 40%-60% of unexposed individuals suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition. "1.) Participant Characteristics: Table 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/table/tbl1/?report=objectonly) 2.) SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgA, and IgG Responses of Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig1/). 3.) SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses of Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 2 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig2/) 4.) SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses by Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 3 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig3/) 5.) Correlations between SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4+ T Cells, Antibodies, and CD8+ T Cells: Figure 4 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig4/)"
32473127
(Cell)
PMID
32473127
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 25
Title Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals
Author(s) nameGrifoni A, Weiskopf D et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 392
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


In patients who had recovered from mild COVID-19 infection, the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies declined quickly within the first 4 months and then more slowly in the following 7 months. In addition, a long-lived S-specific Bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) response was detected in COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 18 of the participants 7-8 months after infection.
34030176
(Nature)
PMID
34030176
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 24
Title SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans
Author(s) nameTurner JS, Kim W et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 6


The T cell distribution in non-seroconverters (NSC) showed high levels of CD4+ naive T cells and low levels of T transitional memory and CD8+ T effector cells. No significant difference was observed in the levels of N and SP specific CD+ T cells between the non-seroconverters and seroconverters. On antigen stimulation, the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-seroconverters showed decreased PD-1 levels when compared to seroconverters.
Pre-print (bioRXiv)
Date of Publishing 2021 May 04
Title Highly functional Cellular Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Non-Seroconvertors is associated with immune protection


T cells play an important role in viral clearance when compared to antibodies in patients with mild COVID-19 (88.8%). Anti-inflammatory responses such as cytokine inhibition rate and tissue repair rate are correlated to T cell number and these are suppressed in non-survivors.
Pre-print (medRXiv)
Date of Publishing 2021 Apr 29
Title Impairment of T cells antiviral and anti-inflammation immunities dominates the death from COVID-19


Statistical comparisons of the 3 clinical case subjects reveal an increase of SERPING1, the transcript encoding C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH). C1-INH plays a central role in the activation of the complement system and is potentially linked to complement hyperactivation in COVID-19.
33437888
(Heliyon)
PMID
33437888
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan
Title Clinically distinct COVID-19 cases share notably similar immune response progression: A follow-up analysis
Author(s) nameHausburg MA, Banton KL et al.
Journal Heliyon
Impact factor
1.65
Citation count: 1


The increased somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus-specific memory B cells early after recovery is a unique feature observed in sustainers (convalescent patients showing stable or enhanced antibody production several months after infection).
33171099
(Cell)
PMID
33171099
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 8


During the early stages of COVID-19, total T lymphocyte count and CD4+ T cells decrease in count.
33310028
(Int J Infect Dis)
PMID
33310028
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Dynamic Anti-Spike Protein Antibody Profiles in COVID-19 Patients
Author(s) nameBao Y, Ling Y et al.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor
3.42
Citation count: 1


In convalescent patients that heal quickly from COVID-19 have different CD4 + T cell subsets that persist well past the disease resolution.
33171099
(Cell)
PMID
33171099
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 8


In patients with severe COVID-19, decreased T-cell proportion with downregulated gene expression related to T-cell activation and differentiation occurred. The DifferentiaNet database using the NetworkAnalyst platform to screen the key genes involved in immune-related genes of COVID-19
32307550
(Clin Infect Dis)
PMID
32307550
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Downregulated Gene Expression Spectrum and Immune Responses Changed During the Disease Progression in Patients With COVID-19
Author(s) nameOuyang Y, Yin J et al.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor
7.71
Citation count: 21


A COVID patient coinfected with HIV-1/Hep C virus showed slow antibody response despite being negative for COVID-19 RNA test.
32270178
(Clin Infect Dis)
PMID
32270178
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Early virus clearance and delayed antibody response in a case of COVID-19 with a history of co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV
Author(s) nameZhao J, Liao X et al.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor
7.71
Citation count: 28


In patients recovering from COVID-19, a time-dependent decrease in inflammation is associated with continuous and effective neutralizing antibody response with progressive differentiation of functional SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell response.
33052343
(bioRxiv)
PMID
33052343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 8
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD et al.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factor
Its not a journal
Citation count: 2


SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells display a unique phenotype and can be classified into different memory subsets
33052343
(bioRxiv)
PMID
33052343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 8
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD et al.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factor
Its not a journal
Citation count: 2


The T cell response against a variety of structural and non-structural proteins revealed a coordinated and dynamic immune response. A broad range of SARS-CoV-2 proteome epitopes is recognized by the CD8+ T cell responses.
33052343
(bioRxiv)
PMID
33052343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 8
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD et al.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factor
Its not a journal
Citation count: 2


132 distinct SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell epitope responses across six different HLAs were detected. The T cell response against a variety of structural and non-structural proteins revealed a coordinated and dynamic immune response characterized by a decrease in inflammation and an increase in neutralizing antibody titre. 6 different HLA alleles: HLA-A*01:01, HLA-A*02:01, HLA-A03:01, HLA-A*11:01, HLA-A*24:02 and HLA-B*07:02
33052343
(bioRxiv)
PMID
33052343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 8
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD et al.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factor
Its not a journal
Citation count: 2


Ex-vivo human lung tissues infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed upregulation of specific pro-inflammatory factors and suppression of specific interferons.
32270184
(Clin Infect Dis)
PMID
32270184
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 12
Title Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19
Author(s) nameChu H, Chan JF et al.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor
7.71
Citation count: 161


A clinical study in Italy showed that 32% of patients not admitted to ICU presented with low lymphocytes <0.8 109/L compared to ICU patient group.
33015815
(Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci)
PMID
33015815
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title Italian SARS-CoV-2 patients in intensive care: towards an identikit for subjects at risk?
Author(s) nameBaronio M, Freni-Sterrantino A et al.
Journal Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Impact factor
2.51
Citation count: 1


A clinical study in Italy showed that 50% of patients admitted to ICU presented with low lymphocytes <0.8 109/L compared to 32% of control (non-ICU) group.
33015815
(Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci)
PMID
33015815
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title Italian SARS-CoV-2 patients in intensive care: towards an identikit for subjects at risk?
Author(s) nameBaronio M, Freni-Sterrantino A et al.
Journal Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Impact factor
2.51
Citation count: 1


The percentage of S-ECD-reactive IgG+ B cells ranges from 0.56% to 11%. The percentage of plasma B cells in CD3-CD19+ B cells was 12.8%. CD19+CD3-CD20-CD27HighCD38High markers for IgG+ B cells. CD3-CD19+IgG+S-ECD+ markers for plasma B cells
32571838
(Science)
PMID
32571838
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug 7
Title A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameChi X, Yan R et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 135


The plasma samples from COVID-19 convalescent patients did not have high titres of neutralising antibodies. However, all patients had the rarely occurring RBD (Receptor Binding domain) antibodies with good anti-viral activity. Since majority of the recovered patients show good anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies with good neutralising activity, vaccines that selectively target the SARS-CoV-2 RBD can be more effective.
32555388
(Nature)
PMID
32555388
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals
Author(s) nameRobbiani DF, Gaebler C et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 177