Immune response


Last updated: 2021 Dec 15
Total hit(s): 42
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The study finds that convalescent donors had varied CD4+ T cell population compared to healthy individuals and patients with mild and moderate disease. In convalescent patients, a higher frequency of cTfh-em cells was linked to a lower blood oxygen level.
32841212
(J Clin Invest)
PMID
32841212
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 1
Title Peripheral CD4+T cell subsets and antibody response in COVID-19 convalescent individuals
Author(s) nameGong F, Dai Y et al.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor
10.51
Citation count: 27
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


The frequency and intensity of T-cell responses were markedly different between moderate and severe pneumonia patients. Furthermore, recent infection with COVID-19 had little effect on the viral memory T-cell pool's resistance to common viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr-virus and Flu-virus). The occurrence of robust adaptive immunity even in individuals who had severe pneumonia supports the case for developing SARS-CoV-2 protective therapies.
32853599
(J Infect)
PMID
32853599
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug 25
Title COVID-19 patients display distinct SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses according to disease severity
Author(s) nameKroemer M, Spehner L et al.
Journal J Infect
Impact factor
5.1
Citation count: 17
Date of Entry 2021 Dec 15


CD4+ T cell responses are induced against spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. Individuals who died had a higher chance of not mounting a cellular response to the proteins. The membrane specific T cells were significantly less in ICU patients. In patients with active disease, PD-1 expression was higher in CoV-2-specific T cells than in convalescent patients with moderate disease.
32833687
(J Clin Invest)
PMID
32833687
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 1
Title SARSCoV-2specific T cell responses and correlations with COVID-19 patient predisposition
Author(s) nameSattler A, Angermair S et al.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor
10.51
Citation count: 68
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 31


Study of immune responses in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients showed a reduction in T cell number. Worst disease outcomes were associated with early increase in cytokine levels. Patients with moderate disease showed a decrease in antiviral and antifungal responses whereas, these responses were elevated in patients with severe disease throughout the course of the disease.
32717743
(Nature)
PMID
32717743
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title Longitudinal analyses reveal immunological misfiring in severe COVID-19
Author(s) nameLucas C, Wong P et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 582
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 31


The kinetics of Interferon (IFN)-I in COVID-19 patients was assessed. IFN-I response was impaired in 1 out of 5 critically ill patients. Patients had a peak in IFN-alpha2 at day 8 to 10 of symptom onset, which corresponded to the viral replication phase, and then it dropped to a low level over time. IFN-2 therapy, especially in patients with COVID-19 who have a deficient IFN response, could be beneficial. To manage the virus and avoid immunopathogenesis, the timing of IFN exposure could be crucial.
32360285
(J Allergy Clin Immunol)
PMID
32360285
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul
Title Type I IFN immunoprofiling in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) nameTrouillet-Assant S, Viel S et al.
Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol
Impact factor
8.2
Citation count: 120
Date of Entry 2021 Oct 31


T cell response was reduced in a group of convalescent health care workers, with early depletion of antibodies occurring in 27% of patients 1.8 months after infection. T-cell responses were lost in 36% of the cases after 5.1 months, and antibody responses were declining in 77% of the cases (41 percent seroreverted).
33961690
(J Infect Dis)
PMID
33961690
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 7
Title Progressive and Parallel Decline of Humoral and T-Cell Immunity in Convalescent Healthcare Workers with Asymptomatic or Mild-to-Moderate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection
Author(s) nameCasado JL, Vizcarra P et al.
Journal J Infect Dis
Impact factor
4.73
Citation count: 5
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Using high dimensional cytometry, 125 COVID-19 patients were analysed. Analysis showed that a subgroup of patients had activation of T cell and B cell subsets and other subgroup had activation of lymphocytes. 3 immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcomes were identified which may have significance for design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.
32669297
(Science)
PMID
32669297
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 4
Title Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications
Author(s) nameMathew D, Giles JR et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 490
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


Deep immunophenotyping of Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed a decrease in the number of circulating T, B and NK cells. There was decrease in the cytokine production by CD4+ T, CD8+T and NK cells. In patients with severe COVID-19 infection (ICU patients), in addition to decreased cytotoxic potential, the Interleukin (IL)-6 levels were elevated. Targeting IL-6 may help in restoring antiviral activity. 5 ICU patients with elevated IL-6 levels were treated with toclizumab. Toclizumab treatment led to a reduction of CRP levels indicating neutralisation of IL-6 activity. It also led to increase in the expression of granzyme A and perforin on NK cells.
32463803
(J Clin Invest)
PMID
32463803
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 1
Title Impaired immune cell cytotoxicity in severe COVID-19 is IL-6 dependent
Author(s) nameMazzoni A, Salvati L et al.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor
10.51
Citation count: 179
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


The Natural killer (NK) cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was assessed. No significant change in NK cell percentages was observed between the healthy controls and COVID-19 patients. However, there was a significant change in the NK cell activation phenotype in COVID-19 patients.
32826343
(Sci Immunol)
PMID
32826343
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug 21
Title Natural killer cell immunotypes related to COVID-19 disease severity
Author(s) nameMaucourant C, Filipovic I et al.
Journal Sci Immunol
Impact factor
8.16
Citation count: 110
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 4


T cell responses towards spike, nucleocapsid and membrane proteins were compared in severe, moderate and critical COVID-19 patients. Membrane protein induced the highest number of CD4+ T cell responses. Critical COVID-19 patients had a strong T cell response that is comparable to, if not better than, non-critical patients. Critical patients had a strong SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response, which could play a role in immunopathogenesis, but disproves the idea that a weakened T cell response is the cause of life-threatening COVID-19.
32904468
(Cell Rep Med)
PMID
32904468
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 22
Title Robust T Cell Response Toward Spike, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 Proteins Is Not Associated with Recovery in Critical COVID-19 Patients
Author(s) nameThieme CJ, Anft M et al.
Journal Cell Rep Med
Impact factor
Cant find
Citation count: 41
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a good cytotoxic response of CD8++ but not CD4+ T cells in mild COVID-19 patients. This was accompanied by the effector CD8++ cells producing granzyme A, B, and perforin at the same time. The PD-1-expressing CD8++ T cells released cytotoxic chemicals. The cytotoxic potential of CD8++ T cells was lowered in patients over the age of 80. The absence of cytotoxic The absence of a cytotoxic response in elderly patients could explain why COVID-19 symptoms are more severe in this age group than in younger patients.
32948688
(mBio)
PMID
32948688
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep 18
Title Impaired cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response in elderly patients
Author(s) nameWestmeier J, Paniskaki K et al.
Journal mBio
Impact factor
6.5
Citation count: 31
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


After SARS-CoV-2 infection, Spike protein-specific antibodies, memory B cells, and cTFH (circulating follicualr helper T cells) were activated. The robust humoral immunity was linked with plasma neutralising activity. B cells or cTFH specific for S-specific receptor binding domain were activated in low numbers. Because circulating S-specific cTFH elicited by infection correlated with both S-specific B cell and antibody responses, the limited CD4 T cell epitopes localised to the RBD may be a restriction for RBD-based vaccine approaches.
32661393
(Nat Med)
PMID
32661393
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19
Author(s) nameJuno JA, Tan HX et al.
Journal Nat Med
Impact factor
22.66
Citation count: 142
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


In the majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, antibody responses to both S protein and receptor binding domain (RBD) are developed. In addition, cross-reactive antigen binding with SARS-CoV has been found in plasma samples from patients and SARS-CoV-2 infected mice. The RBD and non-RBD areas are both targeted by these cross-reactive antibody reactions. Although binding cross-reactivity between plasma from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-infected patients is widespread, cross-neutralization activity may be uncommon.
32426212
(Cell Rep)
PMID
32426212
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 2
Title Cross-reactive Antibody Response between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Infections
Author(s) nameLv H, Wu NC et al.
Journal Cell Rep
Impact factor
7.7
Citation count: 189
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 29


The SARS-CoV-2 immune memory kinetics was assessed more than 6 months after infection. Spike protein-specific memory B cells were higher in number at 6 months than one month after infection. The CD4+ and CD8+ T cells decreased with a half-life of 3-5 months. "1.) Circulating antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 over time: Figure 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F1/), 2.) Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell responses: Figure 2(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F2/), 3.) SARS-CoV-2 circulating memory CD8+ T cells: Figure 3 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F3/), 4.) SARS-CoV-2 circulating memory CD4+ T cells: Figure 4 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919858/figure/F4/)"
33408181
(Science)
PMID
33408181
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan 6
Title Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection
Author(s) nameDan JM, Mateus J et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 608
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


COVID-19 patients had a significant decrease in T-lymphocyte subsets and an increase in inflammatory cytokines. There was a positive correlation between the severity of illness and in-hospital death to the decrease in T-lymphocytes. The decreased level of T lymphocyte subsets may be a possible bio marker for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 as this is usually associated with illness like SARS but not other viral infections.
32315725
(J Infect)
PMID
32315725
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jul
Title Suppressed T cell-mediated immunity in patients with COVID-19: A clinical retrospective study in Wuhan, China
Author(s) nameXu B, Fan CY et al.
Journal J Infect
Impact factor
5.1
Citation count: 139
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ and CD4++ T cells were detected in 70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent cases, respectively. In addition to the M, spike and N protein, CD4++ T cell responses were also seen against ORF3a, ORF8, nsp3, and nsp4 proteins. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG and IgA levels correlated with CD4++ T cell responses to spike protein. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4++ T cells were also detected in 40%-60% of unexposed individuals suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition. "1.) Participant Characteristics: Table 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/table/tbl1/?report=objectonly) 2.) SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgA, and IgG Responses of Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 1 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig1/). 3.) SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses of Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 2 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig2/) 4.) SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses by Recovered COVID-19 Patients: Figure 3 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig3/) 5.) Correlations between SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4+ T Cells, Antibodies, and CD8+ T Cells: Figure 4 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237901/figure/fig4/)"
32473127
(Cell)
PMID
32473127
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 25
Title Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals
Author(s) nameGrifoni A, Weiskopf D et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 1309
Date of Entry 2021 Jul 24


In patients who had recovered from mild COVID-19 infection, the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies declined quickly within the first 4 months and then more slowly in the following 7 months. In addition, a long-lived S-specific Bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) response was detected in COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 18 of the participants 7-8 months after infection.
34030176
(Nature)
PMID
34030176
Date of Publishing: 2021 May 24
Title SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans
Author(s) nameTurner JS, Kim W et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 81


The T cell distribution in non-seroconverters (NSC) showed high levels of CD4+ naive T cells and low levels of T transitional memory and CD8+ T effector cells. No significant difference was observed in the levels of N and SP specific CD+ T cells between the non-seroconverters and seroconverters. On antigen stimulation, the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-seroconverters showed decreased PD-1 levels when compared to seroconverters.
Pre-print (bioRXiv)
Date of Publishing 2021 May 04
Title Highly functional Cellular Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Non-Seroconvertors is associated with immune protection
Impact factor
N/A


T cells play an important role in viral clearance when compared to antibodies in patients with mild COVID-19 (88.8%). Anti-inflammatory responses such as cytokine inhibition rate and tissue repair rate are correlated to T cell number and these are suppressed in non-survivors.
Pre-print (medRXiv)
Date of Publishing 2021 Apr 29
Title Impairment of T cells antiviral and anti-inflammation immunities dominates the death from COVID-19
Impact factor
N/A


Statistical comparisons of the 3 clinical case subjects reveal an increase of SERPING1, the transcript encoding C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH). C1-INH plays a central role in the activation of the complement system and is potentially linked to complement hyperactivation in COVID-19.
33437888
(Heliyon)
PMID
33437888
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan
Title Clinically distinct COVID-19 cases share notably similar immune response progression: A follow-up analysis
Author(s) nameHausburg MA, Banton KL et al.
Journal Heliyon
Impact factor
1.65
Citation count: 2


During the early stages of COVID-19, total T lymphocyte count and CD4+ T cells decrease in count.
33310028
(Int J Infect Dis)
PMID
33310028
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Dynamic Anti-Spike Protein Antibody Profiles in COVID-19 Patients
Author(s) nameBao Y, Ling Y et al.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor
3.42
Citation count: 10


The increased somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus-specific memory B cells early after recovery is a unique feature observed in sustainers (convalescent patients showing stable or enhanced antibody production several months after infection).
33171099
(Cell)
PMID
33171099
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 79


In convalescent patients that heal quickly from COVID-19 have different CD4 + T cell subsets that persist well past the disease resolution.
33171099
(Cell)
PMID
33171099
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 10
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A et al.
Journal Cell
Impact factor
27.35
Citation count: 79


A COVID patient coinfected with HIV-1/Hep C virus showed slow antibody response despite being negative for COVID-19 RNA test.
32270178
(Clin Infect Dis)
PMID
32270178
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Early virus clearance and delayed antibody response in a case of COVID-19 with a history of co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV
Author(s) nameZhao J, Liao X et al.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor
7.71
Citation count: 45


In patients with severe COVID-19, decreased T-cell proportion with downregulated gene expression related to T-cell activation and differentiation occurred. The DifferentiaNet database using the NetworkAnalyst platform to screen the key genes involved in immune-related genes of COVID-19
32307550
(Clin Infect Dis)
PMID
32307550
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Downregulated Gene Expression Spectrum and Immune Responses Changed During the Disease Progression in Patients With COVID-19
Author(s) nameOuyang Y, Yin J et al.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor
7.71
Citation count: 59