Epitope


Last updated: 2021 Sep 6
Total hit(s): 33
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Original Article
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27 out of 115 known SARS-CoV T cell epitopes (23%) were found to be identical with SARS-CoV-2. No mutations were observed in these epitopes among the avilable SARS-CoV-2 sequences (February 2020). These epitopes can be used to develop vaccines that can induce T cell responses which can offer long-term protection.
32106567
(Viruses)
PMID
32106567
Date of Publishing: 2020 Feb 25
Title Preliminary Identification of Potential Vaccine Targets for the COVID-19 Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Based on SARS-CoV Immunological Studies.
Author(s) name Ahmed SF, Quadeer AA, McKay MR.
Journal Viruses
Impact factor
3.76
Citation count: 263
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 6


Two immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes, S14P5 and S21P2 on the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Sera from COVID-19 infected individuals were used to validate the epitopes. In antibody depletion assay, when compared to undepleted sera, sera depleted with antibodies targeting either S14P5, S21P2 or S14P5+S21P2 significantly reduced the ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus.
32483236
(Nat Commun)
PMID
32483236
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun 1
Title Two linear epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that elicit neutralising antibodies in COVID-19 patients
Author(s) namePoh CM, Carissimo G et al.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor
11.8
Citation count: 43
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 6


A multi-eptiope fusion protein (nucleopcapsid, ORF3a, and membrane protein-NOM) vaccine candidate was predicted using bioinformatics methods. This vaccine contained five epitope-rich regions that included epitopes from both T and B cells.
32295479
(J Biomol Struct Dyn)
PMID
32295479
Date of Publishing: 2020 May 2
Title Reverse vaccinology approach to design a novel multi-epitope vaccine candidate against COVID-19: an in silico study
Author(s) nameEnayatkhani M, Hasaniazad M et al.
Journal J Biomol Struct Dyn
Impact factor
3.22
Citation count: 58
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 6


The full viral and human genomes were examined for pentapeptides that are specific to the infection. There were 933 different viral penatapeptides discovered. 107 of them are encased in the spike protein. The Immune Epitope Database (IBD) generated 66 epitopes from these 107 pentapeptides.
32094505
(Cell Mol Immunol)
PMID
32094505
Date of Publishing: 2020 May
Title Epitopes for a 2019-nCoV vaccine
Author(s) name Lucchese G.
Journal Cell Mol Immunol
Impact factor
7.11
Citation count: 18
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 6


49 out of 298 of SARS-CoV linear B cell epitopes (16%) were found to be identicial to the SARS-CoV-2. No mutations were observed in these epitopes among the avilable SARS-CoV-2 sequences (February 2020).
32106567
(Viruses)
PMID
32106567
Date of Publishing: 2020 Feb 25
Title Preliminary Identification of Potential Vaccine Targets for the COVID-19 Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Based on SARS-CoV Immunological Studies.
Author(s) name Ahmed SF, Quadeer AA, McKay MR.
Journal Viruses
Impact factor
3.76
Citation count: 263
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 6


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)from unexposed donors was used to identify CD4+ cells recognising the SARS-CoV-2 epitope. A total of 142 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes were identified-66 from spike protein and 76 from the remainder of the genome. Pre-existing CD4+ T cells showed cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 and the common cold coronaviruses human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1.
32753554
(Science)
PMID
32753554
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct 2
Title Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans
Author(s) nameMateus J, Grifoni A et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 86
Date of Entry 2021 Sep 5


Deletions at positions 144/145 and 243-244 in the NTD region of S glycoprotein disrupt the binding of antibody 4A8, which defines an immunodominant epitope within the NTD. Virus isolated from immunosuppressed patients (Pittsburgh long-term infection 1) resists neutralization by 4A8. A nondeletion variant (Munich) neutralized by 4A8. Both were neutralized by convalescent serum, and neither got neutralized by H2214 (an influenza hemagglutinin binding antibody)
33536258
(Science)
PMID
33536258
Date of Publishing: 2021 Feb 3
Title Recurrent deletions in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein drive antibody escape
Author(s) nameMcCarthy KR, Rennick LJ et al.
Journal Science
Impact factor
20.57
Citation count: 6


6 potent B-cell epitope were identified and verified with experimental epitopes of various organisms inclusive of SARS-CoV. These peptides require in-vitro and in-vivo experimental validation. Population coverage of the identified peptides: A) https://academic.oup.com/view-large/figure/218444509/bbaa340f3.tif B) https://academic.oup.com/view-large/figure/218444510/bbaa340f4a.tif C) https://academic.oup.com/view-large/figure/218444511/bbaa340f4b.tif
33285567
(Brief Bioinform)
PMID
33285567
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 8
Title Design of an epitope-based peptide vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2: a vaccine-informatics approach
Author(s) nameAlam A, Khan A et al.
Journal Brief Bioinform
Impact factor
5.45
Citation count: 3


9 T-cell epitopes that have potential to be vaccine candidates were identified. These were cross-checked with experimentally verified epitopes of various organisms inclusive of SARS-CoV. These peptides require in-vitro and in-vivo experimental validation.
33285567
(Brief Bioinform)
PMID
33285567
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 8
Title Design of an epitope-based peptide vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2: a vaccine-informatics approach
Author(s) nameAlam A, Khan A et al.
Journal Brief Bioinform
Impact factor
5.45
Citation count: 3


Using an evolutionary protein design algorithm, EvoDesign, thousands of stable S protein variants which keep the surface conformation and B cell epitopes intact were studied. The T cell epitope content and similarity score were then calculated. The newly designed S protein introduced 9 new MHC-II T cell epitopes that do not exist in the wildtype SARS-CoV-2. The computational design of the SARS-CoV-2 protein coupled with some other structural modifiactions can be used as a rational-structure-based vaccine design.
33398234
(Comput Struct Biotechnol J)
PMID
33398234
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 31
Title Computational design of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins to increase immunogenicity by T cell epitope engineering
Author(s) nameOng E, Huang X et al.
Journal Comput Struct Biotechnol J
Impact factor
5.11
Citation count: 1


Mice immunized with liposomal peptides elicited a significantly high number of IFN-g-producing CD8+T cells The induction of CD107a T cells by pp1a-641 and pp1a-3732 was better than pp1a-1675/-2884/-3467 and pp1a-1675/-2884/-3467/-3583 respectively.p1a-38 and pp1a-3732 were more dominant than pp1a-1675/-2884/-3467/-3583 and 239 pp1a-1675/-2884/-3467/-3583/-3662, respectively in inducing CD69 expression.
33268522
(J Virol)
PMID
33268522
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 2
Title Identification of HLA-A*02:01-restricted candidate epitopes derived from the non-structural polyprotein 1a of SARS-CoV-2 that may be natural targets of CD8 + T cell recognition in vivo
Author(s) name Takagi A, Matsui M.
Journal J Virol
Impact factor
4.16
Citation count: 1


34 cytotoxic T cell epitopes located in spike glycoprotein, envelope protein, membrane protein, and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein were identified.
33257716
(Sci Rep)
PMID
33257716
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 30
Title Immunoinformatic design of a COVID-19 subunit vaccine using entire structural immunogenic epitopes of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameBehmard E, Soleymani B et al.
Journal Sci Rep
Impact factor
4.12
Citation count: 1


14 helper T cell epitopes located in spike glycoprotein, envelope protein, and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein were identified.
33257716
(Sci Rep)
PMID
33257716
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 30
Title Immunoinformatic design of a COVID-19 subunit vaccine using entire structural immunogenic epitopes of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameBehmard E, Soleymani B et al.
Journal Sci Rep
Impact factor
4.12
Citation count: 1


1 linear Bcell epitopes was identified.
33257716
(Sci Rep)
PMID
33257716
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 30
Title Immunoinformatic design of a COVID-19 subunit vaccine using entire structural immunogenic epitopes of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameBehmard E, Soleymani B et al.
Journal Sci Rep
Impact factor
4.12
Citation count: 1


A multi-epitope vaccine was designed based on reverse-vaccinology approach. This vaccine was able to induce a humoral and cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. A 15-mer Helper T cell lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes having high binding affinity to select MHC II alleles were predicted using NetMHCIIPan server.
33264668
(Infect Genet Evol)
PMID
33264668
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 29
Title Scrutinizing the SARS-CoV-2 protein information for designing an effective vaccine encompassing both the T-cell and B-cell epitopes
Author(s) nameJain N, Shankar U et al.
Journal Infect Genet Evol
Impact factor
2.67
Citation count: 1


Selection and prediction of immunogenic epitopes were performed.
33072338
(New Microbes New Infect)
PMID
33072338
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov
Title Development of a novel platform of virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccine against coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) by exposing of epitopes: an immunoinformatics approach.
Author(s) nameGhorbani A, Zare F et al.
Journal New Microbes New Infect
Impact factor
1.6
Citation count: 1


A list of highly probable epitopes that could help in developing a prophylactic and therapeutic epitope-based vaccine were identified.
33047062
(R Soc Open Sci)
PMID
33047062
Date of Publishing: 2020 Sep
Title Designing of cytotoxic and helper T cell epitope map provides insights into the highly contagious nature of the pandemic novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
Author(s) name Mishra S.
Journal R Soc Open Sci
Impact factor
2.68
Citation count: 2


Four linear B-cell epitopes on the S and N viral proteins were identified.
32711254
(EBioMedicine)
PMID
32711254
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title Linear B-cell epitopes in the spike and nucleocapsid proteins as markers of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and disease severity
Author(s) nameAmrun SN, Lee CY et al.
Journal EBioMedicine
Impact factor
6.49
Citation count: 9


Assessment of T cell responses from convalescent individuals showed that the CD4 and CD8 T cells recognised a number of regions on the N protein. The T cells from COVID-19 convalescent individuals could identify certain regions(MEVTPSGTWL) that were targeted by T cells from individuals who had recovered from SARS. This indicates that SARS-CoV infection can induce T cell responses that can cross-react against SARS-CoV-2.
32668444
(Nature)
PMID
32668444
Date of Publishing: 2020 Aug
Title SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls
Author(s) nameLe Bert N, Tan AT et al.
Journal Nature
Impact factor
24.36
Citation count: 119


8 spike glycoprotein MHCII epitopes lying in the predetermined B-cell epitope region and their antigenicity were predicted. Probable Antigen
32108359
(J Med Virol)
PMID
32108359
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Development of epitopebased peptide vaccine against novel coronavirus 2019 (SARSCOV2): Immunoinformatics approach
Author(s) nameBhattacharya M, Sharma AR et al.
Journal J Med Virol
Impact factor
2.07
Citation count: 92


34 linear spike glycoprotein Bcell epitopes were identified.
32108359
(J Med Virol)
PMID
32108359
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Development of epitopebased peptide vaccine against novel coronavirus 2019 (SARSCOV2): Immunoinformatics approach
Author(s) nameBhattacharya M, Sharma AR et al.
Journal J Med Virol
Impact factor
2.07
Citation count: 92


29 spike glycoprotein MHCI epitopes lying in the predetermined B-cell epitope region and their antigenicity were predicted. Probable Antigen
32108359
(J Med Virol)
PMID
32108359
Date of Publishing: 2020 Jun
Title Development of epitopebased peptide vaccine against novel coronavirus 2019 (SARSCOV2): Immunoinformatics approach
Author(s) nameBhattacharya M, Sharma AR et al.
Journal J Med Virol
Impact factor
2.07
Citation count: 92


Some of the immunogenic domains' conserved structure and mapping position were identified. Prediction of the B-cell epitopes failed to predict epitopes sequence.
32446902
(Microbes Infect)
PMID
32446902
Date of Publishing: 2020 May-Jun
Title Immunoinformatic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein as a strategy to assess cross-protection against COVID-19
Author(s) nameTilocca B, Soggiu A et al.
Journal Microbes Infect
Impact factor
2.373
Citation count: 19


Two (conserved) epitopes from nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 were identified by in silico method.
32302675
(Microbes Infect)
PMID
32302675
Date of Publishing: 2020 May-Jun
Title Comparative computational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein epitopes in taxonomically related coronaviruses
Author(s) nameTilocca B, Soggiu A et al.
Journal Microbes Infect
Impact factor
2.373
Citation count: 33


Three (conserved) epitopes from nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 were identified by In-silico method.
32302675
(Microbes Infect)
PMID
32302675
Date of Publishing: 2020 May-Jun
Title Comparative computational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein epitopes in taxonomically related coronaviruses
Author(s) nameTilocca B, Soggiu A et al.
Journal Microbes Infect
Impact factor
2.373
Citation count: 33