Risk factors


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Increased COVID-19 incidence was associated with high concentration of superstores, due to its potential for efficient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. No significant association of COVID-19 cases with population density or age or household income was reported. Owing to its correlation between increase in COVID-19 cases and position of superstores, retailers are warned to implement protective measures early enough to control spread of the disease.
33980403
(Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol)
PMID
33980403
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jun
Title Socio-spatial influences on the prevalence of COVID-19 in central Pennsylvania
Author(s) nameHenning A, McLaughlin C et al.
Journal Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
Impact factor
1.34
Citation count: 1


Higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in individuals with B+ blood type (36.3%) than those with O+ blood type (29%) and A+ blood type (20.9%). Post-COVID complications such as sleep disturbances, pains, anxiety and depression were also reported. Table showing baseline characteristics of COVID-19 patients Table presenting post-COVID complications in patients
33520252
(New Microbes New Infect)
PMID
33520252
Date of Publishing: 2021 Mar
Title A multi-centre, cross-sectional study on coronavirus disease 2019 in Bangladesh: clinical epidemiology and short-term outcomes in recovered individuals
Author(s) nameMannan A, Mehedi HMH et al.
Journal New Microbes New Infect
Impact factor
1.6
Citation count: 1


Risk of prolonged COVID-19 infection was higher in individuals with higher BMI and triglycerides level, since BMI indirectly lowers IgG immune response when triglyceride levels are high. This is also owed to the direct impact of BMI and triglycerides on 7 proteins: CRP, Factor B and H, the interleukin 1 family of proteins, SAA/2, fibrinogen and antithrombin III via separate pathways. Heatmap for protein Quanitative trait loci (pQTL) , Forest plots for Mendelian Randomization Estimates
33548839
(EBioMedicine)
PMID
33548839
Date of Publishing: 2021 Feb
Title Evaluating the effects of cardiometabolic exposures on circulating proteins which may contribute to severe SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameRichardson TG, Fang S et al.
Journal EBioMedicine
Impact factor
6.49
Citation count: 1


Higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections was observed in Delivery personnels, Informal traders (Salesman) and Transport sector workers compared to others. Overall COVID-19 Incidence rate was 41%.
33434668
(Int J Infect Dis)
PMID
33434668
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan 9
Title Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Mexico: Symptomatic profiles andpresymptomatic people
Author(s) nameFernández-Rojas MA, Luna-Ruiz Esparza MA et al.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor
3.42
Citation count: 1


Risk of COVID-19 incidence decreased due to the implementation of lockdown measures and restricted movement. In addition, negative correlation was observed between temperature, relative humidity and COVID-19 transmission. Graph showing negative correlation of Temperature with Covid cases
33495673
(J Clean Prod)
PMID
33495673
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan 16
Title The Role of Weather Conditions in COVID-19 Transmission: A Study of a Global Panel of 1236 Regions
Author(s) nameZhang C, Liao H et al.
Journal J Clean Prod
Citation count 1


Risk of COVID-19 transmission increased in nursing homes due to factors such as reduced staffing levels of total staff members and Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) as well as number of fines issued in 2020 because of non-conformity to the pandemic guidelines. Also, county-level factor like per-capita income (RR-1.86) showed a higher association with COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes compared to others. Table for Risk factors at Nursing home and County-level
32889290
(Sci Total Environ)
PMID
32889290
Date of Publishing: 2021 Jan 15
Title Mapping community-level determinants of COVID-19 transmission in nursing homes: A multi-scale approach
Author(s) nameSugg MM, Spaulding TJ et al.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Impact factor
5.9
Citation count: 4


Higher risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 was reported in a study population with certain risk factors (46%) whereas increased risk of mortality was observed in those with Rheumatoid arthritis or SLE (5%). Graph representing Risk factors for Hospitalization
33339986
(Nat Rev Rheumatol)
PMID
33339986
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec 18
Title Rheumatic disease and COVID-19: epidemiology and outcomes
Author(s) name Hyrich KL, Machado PM.
Journal Nat Rev Rheumatol
Citation count 2


Risk of COVID-19 positivity among students with a history of loss of taste and/or smell were 4 times higher than those without symptoms. Similarly, students with confirmed or suspected exposure to a positive COVID-19 case were 3.3 times as likely to test positive. Increased test positivity for those with a history of international travel and domestic travel since December 1, 2019 was also reported.
33071164
(J Adolesc Health)
PMID
33071164
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Antibodies in a University Student Population
Author(s) nameTilley K, Ayvazyan V et al.
Journal J Adolesc Health
Impact factor
6.3
Citation count: 1


Hypertension (49%) and Diabetes mellitus (47%) were the most common co-morbidities in Mumbai healthcare workers infected with COVID-19.
33247637
(J Assoc Physicians India)
PMID
33247637
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Hospital in India
Author(s) nameMahajan NN, Mathe A et al.
Journal J Assoc Physicians India
Impact factor
0.5
Citation count: 1


Out of 3711 healthcare workers (HCW) including 297 frontline HCW, 116 non-frontline, 113 physicians, 103 nurses and 197 other staff, 413 (11%) were SARS-CoV-2 infected. Frontline workers were highly prone to SARS-CoV-2 due to their close contact with COVID-19 patients. An overall 1% mortality rate was reported. Median age of COVID-19 infected HCWs was 32 years.
33247637
(J Assoc Physicians India)
PMID
33247637
Date of Publishing: 2020 Dec
Title Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Hospital in India
Author(s) nameMahajan NN, Mathe A et al.
Journal J Assoc Physicians India
Impact factor
0.5
Citation count: 1


Risk of premature (<37 weeks) birth was observed in 12.9% infants born to SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. Among 610 (21.3%) tested infants, 2.6% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating vertical transmission.
33151917
(MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep)
PMID
33151917
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 6
Title Birth and Infant Outcomes Following Laboratory-Confirmed Infection in Pregnancy SET-NET, 16 Jurisdictions, March 29October 14, 2020 SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameWoodworth KR, Olsen EO et al.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor
14.4
Citation count: 8


A higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 was observed in Individuals who had obesity (24%), attended large gatherings such as graduation dinner (30%), planting dinner (22%) and visited households (24%) than those with Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular (10%), chronic lung disease and hyperglycemia (7%), being in the household (14%) or working (4%)
33151922
(MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep)
PMID
33151922
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 6
Title A SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Illustrating the Challenges in Limiting the Spread of the Virus - Hopi Tribe, May-June 2020
Author(s) nameHirschman J, Kaur H et al.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor
14.4
Citation count: 1


High risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection from index patients was reported in household members with Asthma (13%) than those with chronic lung or renal disease (1%). Moderate risk of SARS-COV-2 transmission was reported for those with Cardiovascular disease and Diabetes (4%), Immunodeficiency and Smokers (2%) . Median age of index patients was 32 years and that of household members was 28 years.
33151916
(MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep)
PMID
33151916
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 6
Title Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020
Author(s) nameGrijalva CG, Rolfes MA et al.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor
14.4
Citation count: 9


Out of 54 residents in a psychiatric facility, 40 (74%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 with doubling time of 3.9 days. Obesity as a risk factor (43%) and no other psychiatric or medical condition was significantly associated with the infection.
33166098
(Prim Care Companion CNS Disord)
PMID
33166098
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 5
Title COVID-19 Transmission in a Psychiatric Long-Term Care Rehabilitation Facility: An Observational Study.
Author(s) nameXiong GL, Atkin A et al.
Journal Prim Care Companion CNS Disord
Impact factor
0.3
Citation count: 1


Positive risk predictors for COVID-19 cases and deaths were wind speed, major sports events, white race ( 0.8, p < 0.05) and GDP per capita ( = 1.07, p = 0.04) whereas negative risk predictor for COVID-19 cases ( = 1.76, p = 6.62 106) and deaths ( = 0.94, p = 0.01) was yellow race. Graphs showing association between risk factors and COVID transmission and fatality
33339626
(Public Health)
PMID
33339626
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 19
Title Important factors affecting COVID-19 transmission and fatality in metropolises
Author(s) nameCao W, Chen C et al.
Journal Public Health
Impact factor
1.774
Citation count: 1


Overall absolute risk in a total population of 829 healthcare workers was 7%. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in healthcare workers (7.3%) than non-healthcare workers (0.4%) and higher for those with hypertension than those with autoimmune diseases.
33198725
(BMC Infect Dis)
PMID
33198725
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 16
Title Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously undiagnosed health care workers in New Jersey, at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic
Author(s) nameBarrett ES, Horton DB et al.
Journal BMC Infect Dis
Impact factor
2.58
Citation count: 12


Overall risk of active infection was higher among Health Care Workers of UHN (11.7%) as compared to Health care workers of RWJUH (3.5%). Higher rates of infection was reported among nurses, in those caring for >5 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and who were in contact for 50-74% of time with COVID-19 patients. Percentage of SARS-CoV-2 infection rates reported for Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) and University Hospital Newark (UHN), respectively.
33198725
(BMC Infect Dis)
PMID
33198725
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 16
Title Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously undiagnosed health care workers in New Jersey, at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic
Author(s) nameBarrett ES, Horton DB et al.
Journal BMC Infect Dis
Impact factor
2.58
Citation count: 12


Risk of Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type B, followed by A, O and AB as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
33188185
(Nat Commun)
PMID
33188185
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 13
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) name Zietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor
11.8
Citation count: 34


Risk of intubation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type B, followed by AB, O and A as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
33188185
(Nat Commun)
PMID
33188185
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 13
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) name Zietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor
11.8
Citation count: 34


Risk of death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type AB, followed by O, A and B as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
33188185
(Nat Commun)
PMID
33188185
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 13
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) name Zietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor
11.8
Citation count: 34


Risk of COVID-19 incidence and fatality rate was significantly increased with increasing air pollution (Nitrogen dioxide and PM-2.5 levels). Relationship graph of COVID-19 cases and Air polluion , Relationship graph of COVID-19 fatality and Air pollution
32887014
(Sci Total Environ)
PMID
32887014
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov 1
Title A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
Author(s) nameSasidharan M, Singh A et al.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Impact factor
5.9
Citation count: 5


Risk of contracting COVID-19 infection ranged from 73% to 92.5% in the University of Georgia, since estimated percentage of asymptomatic COVID-19 positive students was 81.1%. Total University of Georgia student population was 38,920.
33176345
(J Fam Pract)
PMID
33176345
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov
Title A high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-infected university students are asymptomatic
Author(s) name Ebell MH, Chupp C, Bentivegna M.
Journal J Fam Pract
Citation count 1


Primary care health professional shortage areas (HSPA) have a higher incidence of COVID-19 infections compared to not primary care health professional shortage areas. Also, the HPSA characteristic shows the highest incidence rate ratios(IRR) of infections when compared to other population charateristics.
32827110
(J Gen Intern Med)
PMID
32827110
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov
Title Associations Between Primary Care Provider Shortage Areas and County-Level COVID-19 Infection and Mortality Rates in the USA
Author(s) name Ku BS, Druss BG.
Journal J Gen Intern Med
Impact factor
2.39
Citation count: 2


Risk of nosocomial COVID-19 was high if patients stayed greater than 7 days and posed extremely high risk to healthcare workers on a green ward, suggesting the hospital protective measures were inadequate to prevent nosocomial spread. Criteria of hospital stay for 7 days was chosen in the study, because in case patients developed COVID-19 after 7 days, it would indicate that they contracted the disease being an inpatient rather than delayed diagnosis from admission.
33199347
(Clin Med (Lond))
PMID
33199347
Date of Publishing: 2020 Nov
Title Nosocomial COVID-19 on a green ward
Author(s) name Soe WM, Balakrishnan A, Adhiyaman V.
Journal Clin Med (Lond)
Impact factor
1.24
Citation count: 1


Risk factors such as hypertension (16.8%) and diabetes (5.2%) increased odds of presenting with symptoms 1.6-fold for one comorbidity and 3.2-fold for 2 comorbidities. Older age was associated with the risk of longer hospitalisation. Asymptomatic cases (63%) were higher than symptomatic (27%). Risk factors association with COVID-19: https://www.npmj.org/articles/2020/27/4/images/NigerPostgradMedJ_2020_27_4_285_299915_t4.jpg
33154280
(Niger Postgrad Med J)
PMID
33154280
Date of Publishing: 2020 Oct-Dec
Title Clinical characteristics, predictors of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 and duration of hospitalisation in a cohort of 632 Patients in Lagos State, Nigeria
Author(s) nameErinoso OA, Wright KO et al.
Journal Niger Postgrad Med J
Citation count 1