Immune response


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Analysis of the peripheral lymphocyte subsets in Covid-19 patients showed a decrease in the number of T cells (helper T (Th) cells, suppressor T cells and regulatory T cells). A significant increase in the levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines was observed in patients with the severe form of the disease.
PMID 32161940
Title Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
Author(s) nameQin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, Xie C, Ma K, Shang K, Wang W, Tian DS.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count897
Date of publishing2020 Jul 28
The T cell distribution in non-seroconverters (NSC) showed high levels of CD4+ naive T cells and low levels of T transitional memory and CD8+ T effector cells. No significant difference was observed in the levels of N and SP specific CD+ T cells between the non-seroconverters and seroconverters. On antigen stimulation, the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-seroconverters showed decreased PD-1 levels when compared to seroconverters.
PMID -
Title Highly functional Cellular Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Non-Seroconvertors is associated with immune protection
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Date of publishing2021 May 04
T cells play an important role in viral clearance when compared to antibodies in patients with mild COVID-19 (88.8%). Anti-inflammatory responses such as cytokine inhibition rate and tissue repair rate are correlated to T cell number and these are suppressed in non-survivors.
PMID -
Title Impairment of T cells antiviral and anti-inflammation immunities dominates the death from COVID-19
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Date of publishing2021 Apr 29
Statistical comparisons of the 3 clinical case subjects reveal an increase of SERPING1, the transcript encoding C1 esterase inhibitor (C1–INH). C1-INH plays a central role in the activation of the complement system and is potentially linked to complement hyperactivation in COVID-19.
PMID 33437888
Title Clinically distinct COVID-19 cases share notably similar immune response progression: A follow-up analysis
Author(s) nameHausburg MA, Banton KL, Roshon M, Bar-Or D.
Journal Heliyon
Impact factor1.65
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Jan
In convalescent patients that heal quickly from COVID-19 have different CD4 + T cell subsets that persist well past the disease resolution.
PMID 33171099
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A, Fischinger S, Mullur J, Atyeo C, Travers M, Lelis FJN, Pullen KM, Martin H, Tong P, Gautam A, Habibi S, Bensko J, Gakpo D, Feldman J, Hauser BM, Caradonna TM, Cai Y, Burke JS, Lin J, Lederer JA, Lam EC, Lavine CL, Seaman MS, Chen B, Schmidt AG, Balazs AB, Lauffenburger DA, Alter G, Wesemann DR.
Journal Cell
Impact factor27.35
Citation count8
Date of publishing2020 Dec 10
The increased somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus-specific memory B cells early after recovery is a unique feature observed in sustainers (convalescent patients showing stable or enhanced antibody production several months after infection).
PMID 33171099
Title Quick COVID-19 Healers Sustain Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Production
Author(s) nameChen Y, Zuiani A, Fischinger S, Mullur J, Atyeo C, Travers M, Lelis FJN, Pullen KM, Martin H, Tong P, Gautam A, Habibi S, Bensko J, Gakpo D, Feldman J, Hauser BM, Caradonna TM, Cai Y, Burke JS, Lin J, Lederer JA, Lam EC, Lavine CL, Seaman MS, Chen B, Schmidt AG, Balazs AB, Lauffenburger DA, Alter G, Wesemann DR.
Journal Cell
Impact factor27.35
Citation count8
Date of publishing2020 Dec 10
During the early stages of COVID-19, total T lymphocyte count and CD4+ T cells decrease in count.
PMID 33310028
Title Dynamic Anti-Spike Protein Antibody Profiles in COVID-19 Patients
Author(s) nameBao Y, Ling Y, Chen YY, Tian D, Zhao GP, Zhang XH, Hang H, Li Y, Su B, Lu HZ, Xu J, Wang Y.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor3.42
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Dec 10
In patients with severe COVID-19, decreased T-cell proportion with downregulated gene expression related to T-cell activation and differentiation occurred.
PMID 32307550
Title Downregulated Gene Expression Spectrum and Immune Responses Changed During the Disease Progression in Patients With COVID-19
Author(s) nameOuyang Y, Yin J, Wang W, Shi H, Shi Y, Xu B, Qiao L, Feng Y, Pang L, Wei F, Guo X, Jin R, Chen D.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count21
Date of publishing2020 Nov 19
A COVID patient coinfected with HIV-1/Hep C virus showed slow antibody response despite being negative for COVID-19 RNA test.
PMID 32270178
Title Early virus clearance and delayed antibody response in a case of COVID-19 with a history of co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV
Author(s) nameZhao J, Liao X, Wang H, Wei L, Xing M, Liu L, Zhang Z.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count28
Date of publishing2020 Nov 19
132 distinct SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell epitope responses across six different HLAs were detected. The T cell response against a variety of structural and non-structural proteins revealed a coordinated and dynamic immune response characterized by a decrease in inflammation and an increase in neutralizing antibody titre.
PMID 33052343
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD, Bloch EM, Bonny TS, Sumatoh H, Kairi F, Carbajo D, Abel B, Newell EW, Bettinotti MP, Benner SE, Patel EU, Littlefield K, Laeyendecker O, Shoham S, Sullivan D, Casadevall A, Pekosz A, Nardin A, Fehlings M, Tobian AA, Quinn TC.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factorIts not a journal
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Oct 8
The T cell response against a variety of structural and non-structural proteins revealed a coordinated and dynamic immune response. A broad range of SARS-CoV-2 proteome epitopes is recognized by the CD8+ T cell responses.
PMID 33052343
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD, Bloch EM, Bonny TS, Sumatoh H, Kairi F, Carbajo D, Abel B, Newell EW, Bettinotti MP, Benner SE, Patel EU, Littlefield K, Laeyendecker O, Shoham S, Sullivan D, Casadevall A, Pekosz A, Nardin A, Fehlings M, Tobian AA, Quinn TC.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factorIts not a journal
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Oct 8
SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells display a unique phenotype and can be classified into different memory subsets
PMID 33052343
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD, Bloch EM, Bonny TS, Sumatoh H, Kairi F, Carbajo D, Abel B, Newell EW, Bettinotti MP, Benner SE, Patel EU, Littlefield K, Laeyendecker O, Shoham S, Sullivan D, Casadevall A, Pekosz A, Nardin A, Fehlings M, Tobian AA, Quinn TC.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factorIts not a journal
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Oct 8
In patients recovering from COVID-19, a time-dependent decrease in inflammation is associated with continuous and effective neutralizing antibody response with progressive differentiation of functional SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell response.
PMID 33052343
Title CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show kinetics of early differentiation
Author(s) nameKared H, Redd AD, Bloch EM, Bonny TS, Sumatoh H, Kairi F, Carbajo D, Abel B, Newell EW, Bettinotti MP, Benner SE, Patel EU, Littlefield K, Laeyendecker O, Shoham S, Sullivan D, Casadevall A, Pekosz A, Nardin A, Fehlings M, Tobian AA, Quinn TC.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factorIts not a journal
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Oct 8
Ex-vivo human lung tissues infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed upregulation of specific pro-inflammatory factors and suppression of specific interferons.
PMID 32270184
Title Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19
Author(s) nameChu H, Chan JF, Wang Y, Yuen TT, Chai Y, Hou Y, Shuai H, Yang D, Hu B, Huang X, Zhang X, Cai JP, Zhou J, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chan IH, Zhang AJ, Sit KY, Au WK, Yuen KY.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count161
Date of publishing2020 Sep 12
A clinical study in Italy showed that 32% of patients not admitted to ICU presented with low lymphocytes <0.8 109/L compared to ICU patient group.
PMID 33015815
Title Italian SARS-CoV-2 patients in intensive care: towards an identikit for subjects at risk?
Author(s) nameBaronio M, Freni-Sterrantino A, Pinelli M, Natalini G, Tonini G, Marri M, Baglivo M, Sabatini T, Maltese PE, Chiurazzi P, Michelini S, Morreale G, Ascione A, Notaro P, Bertelli M.
Journal Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Impact factor2.51
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Sep
A clinical study in Italy showed that 50% of patients admitted to ICU presented with low lymphocytes <0.8 109/L compared to 32% of control (non-ICU) group.
PMID 33015815
Title Italian SARS-CoV-2 patients in intensive care: towards an identikit for subjects at risk?
Author(s) nameBaronio M, Freni-Sterrantino A, Pinelli M, Natalini G, Tonini G, Marri M, Baglivo M, Sabatini T, Maltese PE, Chiurazzi P, Michelini S, Morreale G, Ascione A, Notaro P, Bertelli M.
Journal Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Impact factor2.51
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Sep
The percentage of S-ECD-reactive IgG+ B cells ranges from 0.56% to 11%. The percentage of plasma B cells in CD3-CD19+ B cells was 12.8%.
PMID 32571838
Title A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameChi X, Yan R, Zhang J, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Hao M, Zhang Z, Fan P, Dong Y, Yang Y, Chen Z, Guo Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Song X, Chen Y, Xia L, Fu L, Hou L, Xu J, Yu C, Li J, Zhou Q, Chen W.
Journal Science
Impact factor20.57
Citation count135
Date of publishing2020 Aug 7
Abnormalities in CBC and liver enzymes were more frequently detected on admission in symptomatic children with 11 out of 24 (45.8%) having abnormal WBC count, 25% having neutropenia and 12.5% leukopenia for age. Raised ALT was reported for 29.2% children and higher AST levels (31.2 U/L), ALT levels (22.6 U/L) were detected compared to asymptomatic.
PMID 33164022
Title Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children
Author(s) nameLi J, Thoon KC, Chong CY, Maiwald M, Kam KQ, Nadua K, Tan NW, Yung CF.
Journal Ann Acad Med Singap
Impact factor0.94
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Aug
Abnormalities in CBC and liver enzymes were rarely detected on admission in asymptomatic children with 1 out of 15 (6.7%) having abnormal WBC count or neutropenia for age. Raised ALT was reported for 1 child whereas lower AST levels (25.6 U/L) and ALT levels (15.8 U/L) were detected compared to symptomatic.
PMID 33164022
Title Comparative Analysis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children
Author(s) nameLi J, Thoon KC, Chong CY, Maiwald M, Kam KQ, Nadua K, Tan NW, Yung CF.
Journal Ann Acad Med Singap
Impact factor0.94
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Aug
The plasma samples from COVID-19 convalescent patients did not have high titres of neutralising antibodies. However, all patients had the rarely occurring RBD (Receptor Binding domain) antibodies with good anti-viral activity.
PMID 32555388
Title Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals
Author(s) nameRobbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Wang Z, Cho A, Agudelo M, Barnes CO, Gazumyan A, Finkin S, Hägglöf T, Oliveira TY, Viant C, Hurley A, Hoffmann HH, Millard KG, Kost RG, Cipolla M, Gordon K, Bianchini F, Chen ST, Ramos V, Patel R, Dizon J, Shimeliovich I, Mendoza P, Hartweger H, Nogueira L, Pack M, Horowitz J, Schmidt F, Weisblum Y, Michailidis E, Ashbrook AW, Waltari E, Pak JE, Huey-Tubman KE, Koranda N, Hoffman PR, West AP Jr, Rice CM, Hatziioannou T, Bjorkman PJ, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC.
Journal Nature
Impact factor24.36
Citation count177
Date of publishing2020 Aug
Analysis of the peripheral lymphocyte subsets in Covid-19 patients showed a decrease in the number of T cells (helper T (Th) cells, suppressor T cells and regulatory T cells). A significant increase in the levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines was observed in patients with the severe form of the disease.
PMID 32161940
Title Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
Author(s) nameQin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, Xie C, Ma K, Shang K, Wang W, Tian DS.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count897
Date of publishing2020 Jul 28
The peripheral immune cell phenotype in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was assessed. A new cell type "developing neutrophil" population that appears similar to plasmablasts were identified and were significantly increased in ARDS patients. The pro-inflammatory cytokines were not expressed by peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes.
PMID 32514174
Title A single-cell atlas of the peripheral immune response in patients with severe COVID-19
Author(s) nameWilk AJ, Rustagi A, Zhao NQ, Roque J, MartĂ­nez-ColĂłn GJ, McKechnie JL, Ivison GT, Ranganath T, Vergara R, Hollis T, Simpson LJ, Grant P, Subramanian A, Rogers AJ, Blish CA.
Journal Nat Med
Impact factor22.66
Citation count103
Date of publishing2020 Jul
Three different immunotypes were identified among a total of 133 donors.
PMID 32511371
Title Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals patient heterogeneity and distinct immunotypes with implications for therapeutic interventions
Author(s) nameMathew D, Giles JR, Baxter AE, Greenplate AR, Wu JE, Alanio C, Oldridge DA, Kuri-Cervantes L, Pampena MB, D'Andrea K, Manne S, Chen Z, Huang YJ, Reilly JP, Weisman AR, Ittner CAG, Kuthuru O, Dougherty J, Nzingha K, Han N, Kim J, Pattekar A, Goodwin EC, Anderson EM, Weirick ME, Gouma S, Arevalo CP, Bolton MJ, Chen F, Lacey SF, Hensley SE, Apostolidis S, Huang AC, Vella LA; UPenn COVID Processing Unit, Betts MR, Meyer NJ, Wherry EJ.
Journal bioRxiv
Impact factorIts not a journal
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 May 23
The study assessed the difference in immune responses between severe and moderate cases of COVID-19. The number of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells were significantly lower in the severe group when compared to the moderate group. Cytokines like IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha were elevated in severe cases.
PMID 32217835
Title Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019
Author(s) nameChen G, Wu D, Guo W, Cao Y, Huang D, Wang H, Wang T, Zhang X, Chen H, Yu H, Zhang X, Zhang M, Wu S, Song J, Chen T, Han M, Li S, Luo X, Zhao J, Ning Q.
Journal J Clin Invest
Impact factor10.51
Citation count812
Date of publishing2020 May 1
Biopsy samples from the lung, liver and heart tissues of a patient who had succumbed to COVID-19 were analysed. Maximum damage was observed in the lungs. The cause for liver injury could be either due to viral infection or drug-induced. No major damage was observed in the heart.
PMID 32085846
Title Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Author(s) nameXu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, Liu S, Zhao P, Liu H, Zhu L, Tai Y, Bai C, Gao T, Song J, Xia P, Dong J, Zhao J, Wang FS.
Journal Lancet Respir Med
Impact factor15.78
Citation count1888
Date of publishing2020 Apr