Transmission


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160 whole-genome sequences were obtained from all provinces in Ecuador. Global B.1.1.74 lineage was the predominant lineage (39.4%) in early phase in Ecuador. Transmission lineages D and H were the dominant lineages in the data set in all provinces.
PMID
Title Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 transmission lineages in Ecuador.
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This study focused on two genes ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the variations of which relates to COVID 19 infection and disease progression. SNPs with higher allele frequencies for ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were found in African and East Asian population than Europeans and Americans which could explain the differential susceptibility to the infection.
PMID
Title COVID-19: Variant screening, an important step towards precision epidemiology
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Airborne/Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is the highly prevalent route when compared to others, suggested by 10 concrete and consistent studies.
PMID 33865497
Title Ten Scientific reasons in support of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameGreenhalgh T, Jimenez JL, Prather KA, Tufekci Z, Fisman D, Schooley R.
Journal Lancet
Impact factor43.38
Citation count
Date of publishing2021 May 1
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to occur via ocular surfaces of the eyes, demonstrated by presence of viral RNA in the conjunctival sac, which could gain entry into lungs through the respiratory tract. Effective measures such as protective eye equipment and hand hygiene could be used to prevent ocular transmission in healthcare workers.
PMID 33986784
Title COVID-19: risk of ocular transmission in health care professionals
Author(s) nameMatos AG, Sarquis IC, Santos AAN, Cabral LP.
Journal Rev Bras Med Trab
Impact factor
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Date of publishing2021 Apr 30
SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics showed that central nodes of each cluster were located at either end of the Amazonas city, suggesting two independent introduction of the virus and tranmission events but with slight overlapping of both clusters.
PMID 33857136
Title Deciphering the introduction and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Colombian Amazon Basin
Author(s) nameBallesteros N, Muñoz M, Patiño LH, Hernández C, González-Casabianca F, Carroll I, Santos-Vega M, Cascante J, Angel A, Feged-Rivadeneira A, Palma-Cuero M, Flórez C, Gomez S, van de Guchte A, Khan Z, Dutta J, Obla A, Alshammary HA, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Hernandez MM, Sordillo EM, Simon V, van Bakel H, Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Ramírez JD.
Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Impact factor4.4
Citation count
Date of publishing2021 Apr
Transmissibility of novel SARS-CoV-2 variant (VOC 202012/01) was higher due to a higher viral load in samples, which led to increased incidence of cases owing to its higher reproduction number (43-90%) when compared to the preexisting variants.
PMID 33658326
Title Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England
Author(s) nameDavies NG, Abbott S, Barnard RC, Jarvis CI, Kucharski AJ, Munday JD, Pearson CAB, Russell TW, Tully DC, Washburne AD, Wenseleers T, Gimma A, Waites W, Wong KLM, van Zandvoort K, Silverman JD; CMMID COVID-19 Working Group; COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium, Diaz-Ordaz K, Keogh R, Eggo RM, Funk S, Jit M, Atkins KE, Edmunds WJ.
Journal Science
Impact factor20.57
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Mar 3
SARS-CoV-2 transmission could be reduced by considering significant factors such as airflow rate, exposure time and proximity to the infected person.The study also identified the relationship between factors such as physical environment, activity, time and the exposure to viral aerosols.
PMID 33495667
Title Modelling uncertainty in the relative risk of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus by airborne aerosol transmission in well mixed indoor air
Author(s) nameJones B, Sharpe P, Iddon C, Hathway EA, Noakes CJ, Fitzgerald S.
Journal Build Environ
Impact factor5.2
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Mar 15
Household SARS-CoV-2 transmission (65) was the main source of 187 COVID-19 cases being reported, followed by unknown setting (45), imported cases (30) and workplace-related cases (39). An average number of 5.1 contacts were quarantined per each infected case, with 854 individuals totally being quarantined. 4 large transmission chains and 3 superspreading events were also reported.
PMID 33513332
Title Epidemiology and Clinical Course of First Wave Coronavirus Disease Cases, Faroe Islands
Author(s) nameKristiansen MF, Heimustovu BH, Borg SÁ, Mohr TH, Gislason H, Møller LF, Christiansen DH, Steig BÁ, Petersen MS, Strøm M, Gaini S.
Journal Emerg Infect Dis
Impact factor6.81
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Mar
SARS-CoV-2 infections were transmitted mostly through: Travel (2264, 721%, including domestic (2136, 68%) and international (128, 4%) as well as known contact with a COVID-19 positive case (873, 278%). Overall SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was 1.1% in March and increased to 10% in May.
PMID 33521608
Title Descriptive epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Karnataka state, South India: Transmission dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections
Author(s) nameKumar N, Shahul Hameed SK, Babu GR, Venkataswamy MM, Dinesh P, Kumar Bg P, John DA, Desai A, Ravi V.
Journal EClinicalMedicine
Impact factor6.68
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Feb
SARS-CoV-2 transmission was confirmed when 14 (31.8%) contacts out of 44 contacts tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 7 household and 6 high-risk contacts. Secondary attack rate was highest for household contacts (16%), compared to high-risk contacts (2.5%). Household contacts were reported to 11 times more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than high- or low-risk contacts.
PMID 33509318
Title Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Northern Ireland, 26 February 2020-26 April 2020
Author(s) namePett J, McAleavey P, McGurnaghan P, Spiers R, O'Doherty M, Patterson L, Johnston J.
Journal Epidemiol Infect
Impact factor2.01
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Jan 29
SARS-CoV-2 transmission via asymptomatic infections in infants was identified when a 14-day-old asymptomatic newborn was reported SARS-CoV-2 positive for PCR test, but no other newborns were tested positive at delivery. 52.6% of infants were admitted to NNU (Neonatal Unit) due to prematurity.
PMID 33521167
Title Epidemiology, management and risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a cohort of newborns born to mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 infection
Author(s) nameSolís-García G, Gutiérrez-Vélez A, Pescador Chamorro I, Zamora-Flores E, Vigil-Vázquez S, Rodríguez-Corrales E, Sánchez-Luna M.
Journal An Pediatr (Engl Ed)
Impact factor1.3
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Jan 26
Transmisssion of SARS-CoV-2 via raw and treated wastewater was not considered as a mode of transmission conclusively due to absence of replicating viruses when grown in vitro, although RT-PCR results showed presence of virus in untreated and treated wastewater samples.
PMID 32861187
Title Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater in Germany - Suitability for COVID-19 surveillance and potential transmission risks
Author(s) nameWesthaus S, Weber FA, Schiwy S, Linnemann V, Brinkmann M, Widera M, Greve C, Janke A, Hollert H, Wintgens T, Ciesek S.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Impact factor5.9
Citation count10
Date of publishing2021 Jan 10
SARS-CoV-2 spread in Oman was contributed by the family clusters, out of 21 clusters which were reported.
PMID 33359061
Title Molecular epidemiology of COVID-19 in Oman: A molecular andsurveillance study for the early transmission of COVID-19 in thecountry
Author(s) nameAl-Mahruqi S, Al-Wahaibi A, Khan AL, Al-Jardani A, Asaf S, Alkindi H, Al-Kharusi S, Al-Rawahi AN, Al-Rawahi A, Al-Salmani M, Al-Shukri I, Al-Busaidi A, Al-Abri SS, Al-Harrasi A.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor3.42
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Dec 21
Vertical (Intrauterine) transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be definitely confirmed only by RT-PCR within 72 hours of birth as well as SARS-CoV-2 in chorionic villi cells of infected mother-infant duo, either by in-situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry.
PMID 32886737
Title Confirming Vertical Fetal Infection With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Neonatal and Pathology Criteria for Early Onset and Transplacental Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 From Infected Pregnant Mothers
Author(s) nameSchwartz DA, Morotti D, Beigi B, Moshfegh F, Zafaranloo N, Patanè L.
Journal Arch Pathol Lab Med
Impact factor4.27
Citation count9
Date of publishing2020 Dec 1
Household SARS-CoV-2 transmission was due to higher rate of symptomatic infections (36%) compared to asymptomatic infections (18%). Secondary infection rate was 53% in all household members and was high across all ethnic groups.
PMID 33151916
Title Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020
Author(s) nameGrijalva CG, Rolfes MA, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Halasa NB, Kim A, Reed C, Fry AM, Talbot HK.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count9
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in individuals who visited large family gatherings (52%) compared to individuals infected from household members (15%), suggesting that communities or large gatherings have the potential to transmit SARS-CoV-2 at a higher rate than households.
PMID 33151922
Title A SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Illustrating the Challenges in Limiting the Spread of the Virus - Hopi Tribe, May-June 2020
Author(s) nameHirschman J, Kaur H, Honanie K, Jenkins R, Humeyestewa DA, Burke RM, Billy TM, Mayer O, Herne M, Anderson M, Bhairavabhotla R, Yatabe G, Balajee SA.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
SARS-CoV-2 Transmission dynamics in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu showed that the highest number of positive contacts was identified in the age group of 18-29 years (184) compared to that of >85 years (4). Overall secondary attack rate in high-risk and low-risk contacts were 10.7% and 4.7%, respectively. 5% of infected individuals caused transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in more than 80% of the cases.
PMID 33154136
Title Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states
Author(s) nameLaxminarayan R, Wahl B, Dudala SR, Gopal K, Mohan B C, Neelima S, Jawahar Reddy KS, Radhakrishnan J, Lewnard JA.
Journal Science
Impact factor20.57
Citation count24
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
SARS-COV-2 Transmission dynamics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh showed that the highest number of positive contacts was identified in the age group of 18-29 years (9760) compared to that of >85 years (83). Overall secondary attack rate in high-risk and low-risk contacts were 10.7% and 4.7%, respectively. Younger age groups were more likely to cause superspreading events.
PMID 33154136
Title Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states
Author(s) nameLaxminarayan R, Wahl B, Dudala SR, Gopal K, Mohan B C, Neelima S, Jawahar Reddy KS, Radhakrishnan J, Lewnard JA.
Journal Science
Impact factor20.57
Citation count24
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed when 64 out of 392 household contacts, with a secondary attack rate (SAR) of 16.3% were reported. SAR in children (4%) was comparatively lower than in adults (16.9%). Spouse relationship to index patients and age of household contacts were significant risk factors in household transmission.
PMID 32301964
Title The characteristics of household transmission of COVID-19
Author(s) nameLi W, Zhang B, Lu J, Liu S, Chang Z, Peng C, Liu X, Zhang P, Ling Y, Tao K, Chen J.
Journal Clin Infect Dis
Impact factor7.71
Citation count52
Date of publishing2020 Nov 5
Out of 54 residents in a psychiatric facility, 40 (74%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 with doubling time of 3.9 days. Obesity as a risk factor (43%) and no other psychiatric or medical condition was significantly associated with the infection.
PMID 33166098
Title COVID-19 Transmission in a Psychiatric Long-Term Care Rehabilitation Facility: An Observational Study.
Author(s) nameXiong GL, Atkin A, Moquin K, Candido M, Beilenson P, Kasirye O, Wasserman M, Blum P, Hilty D.
Journal Prim Care Companion CNS Disord
Impact factor0.3
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 5
Dane county's lower caseload stems from higher number of introductions of SARS-CoV-2 viruses during February to Early March and lower risk of community transmission compared to Milwaukee. Basic reproduction number of Dane county was reported as 2.42.
PMID 33144575
Title Revealing fine-scale spatiotenporal differences in SARS-CoV-2 introduction and spread
Author(s) nameMoreno GK, Braun KM, Riemersma KK, Martin MA, Halfmann PJ, Crooks CM, Prall T, Baker D, Baczenas JJ, Heffron AS, Ramuta M, Khubbar M, Weiler AM, Accola MA, Rehrauer WM, O'Connor SL, Safdar N, Pepperell CS, Dasu T, Bhattacharyya S, Kawaoka Y, Koelle K, O'Connor DH, Friedrich TC.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor11.8
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 3
Dane county's higher caseload stems from fewer number of introductions of SARS-CoV-2 viruses during January to Early February and greater levels of community transmission compared to Dane county. Basic reproduction number of Milwaukee was reported as 2.82.
PMID 33144575
Title Revealing fine-scale spatiotenporal differences in SARS-CoV-2 introduction and spread
Author(s) nameMoreno GK, Braun KM, Riemersma KK, Martin MA, Halfmann PJ, Crooks CM, Prall T, Baker D, Baczenas JJ, Heffron AS, Ramuta M, Khubbar M, Weiler AM, Accola MA, Rehrauer WM, O'Connor SL, Safdar N, Pepperell CS, Dasu T, Bhattacharyya S, Kawaoka Y, Koelle K, O'Connor DH, Friedrich TC.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor11.8
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 3
SARS-CoV-2 transmission chain was confirmed when 51 primary event-associated cases were identified, and 35 secondary or tertiary cases occurred among household, social and workplace contacts, for a total of 86 cases in which 4 were hospitalized and 1 died. Moreover, 34% of 87 counties in Minnesota had at least one primary, secondary or tertiary case associated with the motorcycle rally from August 7 to 16, 2020.
PMID 33237891
Title COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with a 10-Day Motorcycle Rally in a Neighboring State Minnesota, AugustSeptember
Author(s) nameFirestone MJ, Wienkes H, Garfin J, Wang X, Vilen K, Smith KE, Holzbauer S, Plumb M, Pung K, Medus C, Yao JD, Binnicker MJ, Nelson AC, Yohe S, Como-Sabetti K, Ehresmann K, Lynfield R, Danila R.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 27
Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was potentially indicated using an airflow experiment carried out in a residential area in Guangzhou, China which showed that airflow in the bathtub drains produced by flushing the toilet in one floor was transmitted from Apartment 15-b to 25-b and 27-b due to increased wind speeds via interlinked pipes.
PMID 33235537
Title Community evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through air
Author(s) nameLin G, Zhang S, Zhong Y, Zhang L, Ai S, Li K, Su W, Cao L, Zhao Y, Tian F, Li J, Wu Y, Guo C, Peng R, Wu X, Gan P, Zhu W, Lin H, Zhang Z.
Journal Atmos Environ (1994)
Impact factor4.3
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 20
SARS-CoV-2 transmission was associated with the role of D614G spike protein variant as 614G had a selective advantage when compared to 614D and it relates to higher viral load and infection of younger individuals but not higher mortality or clinical severity.
PMID 33275900
Title Evaluating the Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Mutation D614G on Transmissibility and Pathogenicity
Author(s) nameVolz E, Hill V, McCrone JT, Price A, Jorgensen D, O'Toole Á, Southgate J, Johnson R, Jackson B, Nascimento FF, Rey SM, Nicholls SM, Colquhoun RM, da Silva Filipe A, Shepherd J, Pascall DJ, Shah R, Jesudason N, Li K, Jarrett R, Pacchiarini N, Bull M, Geidelberg L, Siveroni I; COG-UK Consortium, Goodfellow I, Loman NJ, Pybus OG, Robertson DL, Thomson EC, Rambaut A, Connor TR.
Journal Cell
Impact factor27.35
Citation count21
Date of publishing2020 Nov 19