Risk factors


Select item(s)
Key Findings
Higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in individuals with B+ blood type (36.3%) than those with O+ blood type (29%) and A+ blood type (20.9%). Post-COVID complications such as sleep disturbances, pains, anxiety and depression were also reported.
PMID 33520252
Title A multi-centre, cross-sectional study on coronavirus disease 2019 in Bangladesh: clinical epidemiology and short-term outcomes in recovered individuals
Author(s) nameMannan A, Mehedi HMH, Chy NUHA, Qayum MO, Akter F, Rob MA, Biswas P, Hossain S, Ayub M.
Journal New Microbes New Infect
Impact factor1.6
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Mar
Risk of prolonged COVID-19 infection was higher in individuals with higher BMI and triglycerides level, since BMI indirectly lowers IgG immune response when triglyceride levels are high. This is also owed to the direct impact of BMI and triglycerides on 7 proteins: CRP, Factor B and H, the interleukin 1 family of proteins, SAA/2, fibrinogen and antithrombin III via separate pathways.
PMID 33548839
Title Evaluating the effects of cardiometabolic exposures on circulating proteins which may contribute to severe SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameRichardson TG, Fang S, Mitchell RE, Holmes MV, Davey Smith G.
Journal EBioMedicine
Impact factor6.49
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Feb
Higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections was observed in Delivery personnels, Informal traders (Salesman) and Transport sector workers compared to others. Overall COVID-19 Incidence rate was 41%.
PMID 33434668
Title Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Mexico: Symptomatic profiles andpresymptomatic people
Author(s) nameFernández-Rojas MA, Luna-Ruiz Esparza MA, Campos-Romero A, Calva-Espinosa DY, Moreno-Camacho JL, Langle-Martínez AP, García-Gil A, Solís-González CJ, Canizalez-Román A, León-Sicairos N, Alcántar-Fernández J.
Journal Int J Infect Dis
Impact factor3.42
Citation count1
Date of publishing2021 Jan 9
Risk of COVID-19 incidence decreased due to the implementation of lockdown measures and restricted movement. In addition, negative correlation was observed between temperature, relative humidity and COVID-19 transmission.
PMID 33495673
Title The Role of Weather Conditions in COVID-19 Transmission: A Study of a Global Panel of 1236 Regions
Author(s) nameZhang C, Liao H, Strobl E, Li H, Li R, Jensen SS, Zhang Y.
Journal J Clean Prod
Impact factor
Citation count
Date of publishing2021 Jan 16
Risk of COVID-19 transmission increased in nursing homes due to factors such as reduced staffing levels of total staff members and Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) as well as number of fines issued in 2020 because of non-conformity to the pandemic guidelines. Also, county-level factor like per-capita income (RR-1.86) showed a higher association with COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes compared to others.
PMID 32889290
Title Mapping community-level determinants of COVID-19 transmission in nursing homes: A multi-scale approach
Author(s) nameSugg MM, Spaulding TJ, Lane SJ, Runkle JD, Harden SR, Hege A, Iyer LS.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Impact factor5.9
Citation count4
Date of publishing2021 Jan 15
Higher risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 was reported in a study population with certain risk factors (46%) whereas increased risk of mortality was observed in those with Rheumatoid arthritis or SLE (5%).
PMID 33339986
Title Rheumatic disease and COVID-19: epidemiology and outcomes
Author(s) nameHyrich KL, Machado PM.
Journal Nat Rev Rheumatol
Impact factor
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Dec 18
Hypertension (49%) and Diabetes mellitus (47%) were the most common co-morbidities in Mumbai healthcare workers infected with COVID-19.
PMID 33247637
Title Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Hospital in India
Author(s) nameMahajan NN, Mathe A, Patokar GA, Bahirat S, Lokhande PD, Rakh V, Gajbhiye R, Rathi S, Tilve A, Mahajan K, Mohite SC.
Journal J Assoc Physicians India
Impact factor
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Dec
Out of 3711 healthcare workers (HCW) including 297 frontline HCW, 116 non-frontline, 113 physicians, 103 nurses and 197 other staff, 413 (11%) were SARS-CoV-2 infected. Frontline workers were highly prone to SARS-CoV-2 due to their close contact with COVID-19 patients. An overall 1% mortality rate was reported.
PMID 33247637
Title Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Hospital in India
Author(s) nameMahajan NN, Mathe A, Patokar GA, Bahirat S, Lokhande PD, Rakh V, Gajbhiye R, Rathi S, Tilve A, Mahajan K, Mohite SC.
Journal J Assoc Physicians India
Impact factor
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Dec
Risk of COVID-19 positivity among students with a history of loss of taste and/or smell were 4 times higher than those without symptoms. Similarly, students with confirmed or suspected exposure to a positive COVID-19 case were 3.3 times as likely to test positive. Increased test positivity for those with a history of international travel and domestic travel since December 1, 2019 was also reported.
PMID 33071164
Title A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Antibodies in a University Student Population
Author(s) nameTilley K, Ayvazyan V, Martinez L, Nanda N, Kawaguchi ES, O'Gorman M, Conti D, Gauderman WJ, Van Orman S.
Journal J Adolesc Health
Impact factor
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Dec
Risk of premature (<37 weeks) birth was observed in 12.9% infants born to SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. Among 610 (21.3%) tested infants, 2.6% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating vertical transmission.
PMID 33151917
Title Birth and Infant Outcomes Following Laboratory-Confirmed Infection in Pregnancy SET-NET, 16 Jurisdictions, March 29October 14, 2020 SARS-CoV-2
Author(s) nameWoodworth KR, Olsen EO, Neelam V, Lewis EL, Galang RR, Oduyebo T, Aveni K, Yazdy MM, Harvey E, Longcore ND, Barton J, Fussman C, Siebman S, Lush M, Patrick PH, Halai UA, Valencia-Prado M, Orkis L, Sowunmi S, Schlosser L, Khuwaja S, Read JS, Hall AJ, Meaney-Delman D, Ellington SR, Gilboa SM, Tong VT; CDC COVID-19 Response Pregnancy and Infant Linked Outcomes Team; COVID-19 Pregnancy and Infant Linked Outcomes Team (PILOT).
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count8
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
A higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 was observed in Individuals who had obesity (24%), attended large gatherings such as graduation dinner (30%), planting dinner (22%) and visited households (24%) than those with Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular (10%), chronic lung disease and hyperglycemia (7%), being in the household (14%) or working (4%)
PMID 33151922
Title A SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Illustrating the Challenges in Limiting the Spread of the Virus - Hopi Tribe, May-June 2020
Author(s) nameHirschman J, Kaur H, Honanie K, Jenkins R, Humeyestewa DA, Burke RM, Billy TM, Mayer O, Herne M, Anderson M, Bhairavabhotla R, Yatabe G, Balajee SA.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
High risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection from index patients was reported in household members with Asthma (13%) than those with chronic lung or renal disease (1%). Moderate risk of SARS-COV-2 transmission was reported for those with Cardiovascular disease and Diabetes (4%), Immunodeficiency and Smokers (2%) .
PMID 33151916
Title Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020
Author(s) nameGrijalva CG, Rolfes MA, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Halasa NB, Kim A, Reed C, Fry AM, Talbot HK.
Journal MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Impact factor14.4
Citation count9
Date of publishing2020 Nov 6
Out of 54 residents in a psychiatric facility, 40 (74%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 with doubling time of 3.9 days. Obesity as a risk factor (43%) and no other psychiatric or medical condition was significantly associated with the infection.
PMID 33166098
Title COVID-19 Transmission in a Psychiatric Long-Term Care Rehabilitation Facility: An Observational Study.
Author(s) nameXiong GL, Atkin A, Moquin K, Candido M, Beilenson P, Kasirye O, Wasserman M, Blum P, Hilty D.
Journal Prim Care Companion CNS Disord
Impact factor0.3
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 5
Positive risk predictors for COVID-19 cases and deaths were wind speed, major sports events, white race ( 0.8, p < 0.05) and GDP per capita ( = 1.07, p = 0.04) whereas negative risk predictor for COVID-19 cases ( = 1.76, p = 6.62 106) and deaths ( = 0.94, p = 0.01) was yellow race.
PMID 33339626
Title Important factors affecting COVID-19 transmission and fatality in metropolises
Author(s) nameCao W, Chen C, Li M, Nie R, Lu Q, Song D, Li S, Yang T, Liu Y, Du B, Wang X.
Journal Public Health
Impact factor1.774
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov 19
Overall risk of active infection was higher among Health Care Workers of UHN (11.7%) as compared to Health care workers of RWJUH (3.5%). Higher rates of infection was reported among nurses, in those caring for >5 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and who were in contact for 50-74% of time with COVID-19 patients.
PMID 33198725
Title Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously undiagnosed health care workers in New Jersey, at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic
Author(s) nameBarrett ES, Horton DB, Roy J, Gennaro ML, Brooks A, Tischfield J, Greenberg P, Andrews T, Jagpal S, Reilly N, Carson JL, Blaser MJ, Panettieri RA Jr.
Journal BMC Infect Dis
Impact factor2.58
Citation count12
Date of publishing2020 Nov 16
Overall absolute risk in a total population of 829 healthcare workers was 7%. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in healthcare workers (7.3%) than non-healthcare workers (0.4%) and higher for those with hypertension than those with autoimmune diseases.
PMID 33198725
Title Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously undiagnosed health care workers in New Jersey, at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic
Author(s) nameBarrett ES, Horton DB, Roy J, Gennaro ML, Brooks A, Tischfield J, Greenberg P, Andrews T, Jagpal S, Reilly N, Carson JL, Blaser MJ, Panettieri RA Jr.
Journal BMC Infect Dis
Impact factor2.58
Citation count12
Date of publishing2020 Nov 16
Risk of death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type AB, followed by O, A and B as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
PMID 33188185
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) nameZietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor11.8
Citation count34
Date of publishing2020 Nov 13
Risk of intubation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type B, followed by AB, O and A as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
PMID 33188185
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) nameZietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor11.8
Citation count34
Date of publishing2020 Nov 13
Risk of Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher for individuals with blood type B, followed by A, O and AB as well as higher for Rh positive compared to Rh negative.
PMID 33188185
Title Associations between blood type and COVID-19 infection, intubation and death
Author(s) nameZietz M, Zucker J, Tatonetti NP.
Journal Nat Commun
Impact factor11.8
Citation count34
Date of publishing2020 Nov 13
Risk of COVID-19 incidence and fatality rate was significantly increased with increasing air pollution (Nitrogen dioxide and PM-2.5 levels).
PMID 32887014
Title A vulnerability-based approach to human-mobility reduction for countering COVID-19 transmission in London while considering local air quality
Author(s) nameSasidharan M, Singh A, Torbaghan ME, Parlikad AK.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Impact factor5.9
Citation count5
Date of publishing2020 Nov 1
Risk of contracting COVID-19 infection ranged from 73% to 92.5% in the University of Georgia, since estimated percentage of asymptomatic COVID-19 positive students was 81.1%.
PMID 33176345
Title A high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-infected university students are asymptomatic
Author(s) nameEbell MH, Chupp C, Bentivegna M.
Journal J Fam Pract
Impact factor
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov
Primary care health professional shortage areas (HSPA) have a higher incidence of COVID-19 infections compared to not primary care health professional shortage areas. Also, the HPSA characteristic shows the highest incidence rate ratios(IRR) of infections when compared to other population charateristics.
PMID 32827110
Title Associations Between Primary Care Provider Shortage Areas and County-Level COVID-19 Infection and Mortality Rates in the USA
Author(s) nameKu BS, Druss BG.
Journal J Gen Intern Med
Impact factor2.39
Citation count2
Date of publishing2020 Nov
Risk of nosocomial COVID-19 was high if patients stayed greater than 7 days and posed extremely high risk to healthcare workers on a green ward, suggesting the hospital protective measures were inadequate to prevent nosocomial spread.
PMID 33199347
Title Nosocomial COVID-19 on a green ward
Author(s) nameSoe WM, Balakrishnan A, Adhiyaman V.
Journal Clin Med (Lond)
Impact factor1.24
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Nov
Risk factors such as hypertension (16.8%) and diabetes (5.2%) increased odds of presenting with symptoms 1.6-fold for one comorbidity and 3.2-fold for 2 comorbidities. Older age was associated with the risk of longer hospitalisation. Asymptomatic cases (63%) were higher than symptomatic (27%).
PMID 33154280
Title Clinical characteristics, predictors of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 and duration of hospitalisation in a cohort of 632 Patients in Lagos State, Nigeria
Author(s) nameErinoso OA, Wright KO, Anya S, Bowale A, Adejumo O, Adesola S, Osikomaiya B, Mutiu B, Saka B, Falana A, Ola-Ayinde D, Akase EI, Owuna H, Abdur-Razzaq H, Lajide D, Ezechi O, Ogboye O, Osibogun A, Abayomi A.
Journal Niger Postgrad Med J
Impact factor
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Oct-Dec
Risk factors for COVID-19 incidence in pregnant women was abnormal ranges of Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase, D-Dimer and sFlt-1/PlGF.
PMID 33023500
Title SARS-COV-2 infection during pregnancy, a risk factor for eclampsia or neurological manifestations of COVID-19? Case report
Author(s) nameGarcia Rodriguez A, Marcos Contreras S, Fernandez Manovel SM, Marcos Vidal JM, Diez Buron F, Fernandez Fernandez C, Riveira Gonzalez MDC.
Journal BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
Impact factor2.65
Citation count1
Date of publishing2020 Oct 6